Smartweed (Polygonum spp.) taxa

-Smartweed spp. Outline & Bibliography (1998)
a. pennsylvania smartweed (P. pensylvanicum)
b. ladysthumb (P. persicaria)
c. prostrate smartweed (P. aviculare)
d. erect knotweed (P. erectum)
e. swamp smartweed (P. coccineum)
f. wild buckwheat (P. convolvulvus)
g. pale smartweed (P. lapathifolium)
h. green smartweed (P. scabrum)
i. taxa: complex of associated species or demography

 
4.14.98 | polygonumbiblio.html

Smartweed (Polygonum spp.) Biology Outline & Bibliography


Prepared by: Wilmar Morjan, April 1998
WilmarMorj2.JPG (79323 bytes)


Polygonum spp. (Smartweed)

(P. pensylvanicum, P. persicaria, P. erectum, P. coccineum and P. scabrum)

 

**OUTLINE**

1) SEED

1.1) Seed production

Seed production by P. persicaria ranged from 880 to 4010 seeds/plant, representing an av. of 2898 seeds/plant during the whole vegetative period (Kostyal 1985).

Low rates of herbicides reduce the seed production of Polygonum species (Rasmussen 1993).

 

1.2) Dispersion

An important way of seed dispersal in Polygonum spp. has been shown to be water dispersal, lands flowed had shown Polygonum spp. to be the most important weed colonizing some areas (Cronk & Mitsch 1994). Vertebrates are also play a role in dispersal of Polygonum spp. seeds (Staniforth & Cavers 1973). Achenes of Polygonum lapathifolium, P. pensylvanicum and P. persicaria are commonly eaten by cottontail rabbits in southern Ontario. Feeding experiments showed that the smaller achenes of P. lapathifolium and P. persicaria germinated after excretion, while the larger achenes of these 2 spp. and all P. pensylvanicum achenes were destroyed by the digestive process. The average retention time of 6 h (maximum 48 h) would allow short distance dispersal between riverbank habitats and from the riverbank to nearby crop-lands where P. lapathifolium and P. persicaria can be serious weeds (Staniforth & Cavers 1977).

Results suggest that achenes of P. lapathifolium and P. pensylvanicum are successfully dispersed by flood water whereas P. persicaria achenes do not survive water transport and deposition. The presence of P. persicaria on alluvial river bars must be due to some other means of dispersal (Staniforth & Cavers 1976).

Of the seed samples from farm-saved sources (28% of the total), 74% contained more than 10 weed seeds per 7 lb., compared with only 4% in seed from merchants, and 18% of the seed from farm sources contained more than 1000 weed seeds/sample. From 90 species recorded, the most commonly occurring species were Polygonum sp., Avena spp., Galium aparine and Agropyron repens (Tonkin & Phillipson 1973).

 

1.3) Seed dormancy

The dormancy of newly harvested Pennsylvania smartweed (Polygonum pensylvanicum) seeds has been attributed to the impermeability of the achene wall to water. Artificial scarification (Sulphuric acid scarification) results in thinner carpel walls increasing wall splitting but a minimal change in germinability. In the other hand, overwinter burial seed results in cracks and/or cuts in the carpel wall and a greater increase in germinability (Jordan 1981, Jordan 1982).

Maize competition appeared to affect the dormancy of P. pensylvanicum seeds; although all seeds were dormant when harvested, 4% of the sample from plants with maize competition germinated after 15 wks' prior chilling, compared to 35% of seeds from plants without maize competition (Jordan 1981).

P. pensylvanicum seeds which germinate only in spring, required exposure to low temp. to after-ripen completely (Baskin & Baskin 1987, Baskin & Baskin 1986).

Laboratory experiments Polygonum persicaria indicate that there is a similar relationship among the 3 parameters and pre-em. Emergence rate increased with temperature and decreased with increasing soil penetration resistance and depth. Total emergence is unaffected by temperature in the range 10-25°C (Vleeshouwers 1997).

Polygonum persicaria germination increased up to 85% with increase in soil moisture (Yamamoto & Ohba 1977).

Polygonum spp. emerge mainly April-May (P. lapathifolium, P. persicaria (Robert & Neilson 1980).

Three factors which could strongly influence seed germination the field are light, alternating temperature and nitrate ions; any one of these factors is seldom stimulatory on its own, or has only a slight effect, except sometimes after chilling. In some combinations of the three factors, germination of Polygonum persicaria was improved by light, nitrate and alternating temperatures. Pre-chilling had promotive characteristics as well (Vicent & Robert 1977, Karssen 1981).

Seeds of Kickxia spuria, Polygonum persicaria and Sinapis arvensis buried in soil at depths of 1, 5, 10 and 20 cm, after 42 months the losses of undamaged seeds were estimated and found to be greater at 1 cm depth for K. spuria and S. arvensis but not for P. persicaria. Germination tests showed: (1) that germination was generally greater after burial than after dry storage; (2) that the germination capacity of S. arvensis increased with time whereas that of K. spuria decreased, as did that of P. persicaria, but more slowly; (c) that germination capacity increased with depth of burial and temp. and light requirements were reduced in buried seed; (d) that there were seasonal fluctuations in the germination capacity, samples taken in spring performing better than autumn ones; and (e) that only spring samples of P. persicaria germinated at low temp. and light was always required (Lonchamp & Gora 1980).

Dormancy-germination characteristics of achenes of were examined in the field and in the laboratory. Three types of dormancy were identified on achenes in Polygonum lapathifolium, P. pensylvanicum and P. persicaria from Ontario, each of which prevents germination under a different set of unfavorable conditions. An innate dormancy prevents germination in fresh achenes immediately prior to winter. An enforced dormancy prevents germination during the winter and in achenes which are deep in the soil. An induced dormancy is caused by hot or dry periods (at least in P. persicaria). Germination occurs as a series of flushes whenever achenes are brought to the soil surface and/or whenever rainy spells occur (Staniforth & Cavers 1979).

 

1.4) Seed bank

In field trials conducted between 1986-91, during the cropping cycle in 35 fields on the Dijon plain (Cote-d'Or), the median value for the viable seedbank was estimated at 2864 seeds/m2 and the average rate of emergence at 5.54% of viable seeds. The highest emergence was observed fo P. persicaria, 32.8% (Barralis et al. 1996).

The effect of 2 different tillage methods, ploughing and zero tillage, on the species composition and population dynamics of the soil seed bank in a biennial winter wheat-soybean rotation showed that eighty percent of soil seed bank stock, under both ploughing and zero tillage methods, consisted of therophytes. Dominant weeds in the seed bank were Polygonum aviculare, P. lapathifolium, P. persicaria, Amaranthus spp., Chenopodium album, Verbena officinalis and Anagallis spp. (Macchia et al. 1996).

After 20 years' burial in woven glass cloth bags, Polygonum persicaria and Matricaria inodora [= Tripleurospermum maritimum ssp. inordorum] were the most common recovered species from peat with a high water table (Lewis 1971).

Soil from arable areas in Scotland has been examined macroscopically for seeds. The percentage of sites at which they were recorded Polygonum aviculare (41%), Polygonum persicaria (39%) and other no Polygonum species were the most common spp. found. There were 80 different spp. found over the 5 yr of the survey. Estimated total weed populations/m2 ranged from nil to 170 000 with an av. of 16 000/m2 in the top 20 cm of soil (Warwick 1984).

In a survey taken in 1985 of dicotyledonous weeds in 113 fields in 6 districts of NE Scotland, Stellaria media was the most common species, except in Upper Banffshire and Morayshire where Galeopsis spp. and Polygonum aviculare, resp., were predominant (Simpson & Carnegie 1989).

 

2) DEVELOPMENT

2.1)Architecture, size and phenalogic stage

Studies in architecture and allocation, part masses have been found to be more variable than part lengths or areas. In P. pensilvanicum, within-plant biomass allocation patterns among plants of different size classes differ in their response to plant size, regardless of neighbor species. These differences have consequences for plant shape, and they suggest differences among the species in their architectural response to shading (Tremmel & Bazzaz 1995).

In a greenhouse study, Polygonum pensylvanicum exhibited large differences in canopy structure when competing with different species. However, the results do not suggest any broad generalizations about the effects of different species as neighbors (Tremmel & Bazzaz 1993).

 

2.2) Somatic polymorphism

Weed heights can increase by 147% (P. pensylvanicum); the number of branches can be reduced by 98%, fresh wt. by 98% , number of inflorescences by 97% and stem diam. at the soil line by 61% (Jordan 1980).

The effects of parental environment and genotype on offspring provisioning, structure, and growth traits in the annual plant Polygonum persicaria were investigated in cloned individuals of 5 parental genotypes grown in high versus low light, soil moisture, and soil nutrients. The results showed that parental genotypes altered offspring traits in response to particular resource limits, such that offspring quality was maintained or enhanced despite parental resource deprivation (Sultan 1996, Sultan 1995).

 

3) INTERSPECIFIC INTERACTION

A number of plant characters vary along gradients of number of individuals in ways that are unique to the character, the gradient, and the age of the individual. These characters include aspects of leaf size, shape, and orientation, as well as whole plant architecture. Many if not all of these characters are likely to have significant effects upon the functioning of plants. The origin of this difference in response to the gradients of individuals of P. virginianum of differing age may be ontogenetic or may reflect differences in genetic composition created by recombination (Lee et al. 1986).

 

4) INTRASPECIFIC INTERACTION

4.1) Competition

In competition with maize weed heights can increase by 147% (P. pensylvanicum); the number of branches get reduce by 98%, fresh wt. by 98% , number of inflorescences by 97% and stem diam. at the soil line by 61% (Jordan 1980, Jordan et al. 1983).

Seed production of Polygonum pensylvanicum can be reduced by >90% when the weed plants are exposed to competition from maize. Maize competition also appeared to reduce the dormancy of P. pensylvanicum seeds; although all seeds were dormant when harvested, 4% of the sample from plants with maize competition germinated after 15 wks' prior chilling, compared to 35% of seeds from plants without maize competition (Jordan 1981, Jordan et al. 1982, Jordan et al. 1983).

The behavior of Polygonum pensylvanicum (an early successional annual) and Polygonum virginianum (a later successional perennial) compared on gradients of light, nutrients and soil moisture have shown to grow together as well as alone. In most cases the early successional species are more productive and allocate less of its biomass to below ground parts than the later successional. Regardless of whether individuals of P. virginianum start from seed or from rootstocks the results of competition between the two species indicate that the early successional species is competitively more competent when resources are abundant and that the later successional species is competitively more competent when resources are scarce (Zangerl & Bazzaz 1983, Lee et al. 1986).

Polygonum pensylvanicum posses allelopathic characteristics reducing seed germination but not growth of soybean (Mallik & Tesfai 1988).

The amount of seeds produced by F. convolvulus, P. lapathifolium, P. persicaria and P. aviculare in spring wheat were affected by N. In general, seed production was highest at 120 kg N/ha. Lowest weed competition in terms of yield/weed density was observed at 120 kg N/ha (Zwerger 1990).

 

4.2) Predators and parasites

Ustilago urticulosa is a smut fungus that infects the developing flowers and seeds of Polygonum pensylvanicum and could be used as biological control by dusting or emulsion spray of spores. The fungus causes a swelling of the host inflorescence and destruction of reproductive tissue. The fungus produces numerous purple spores which are released into the air to infect other flowers of P. pensylvanicum. (Jordan 1980)

The scarabaeid Popillia japonica on tobacco in South Carolina can be used to control smartweed (Polygonum pensylvanicum), which also reduces tobacco yield. The beetles are allowed to feed in smartweed in skip rows (usually every 5th row in tobacco fields) until the weed are almost eliminated and are then controlled by spraying carbaryl on the skip rows (Manley 1985).

The digestibility of P. pensylvanicum for the giant Canada geese (Branta canadensis maxima) has been estimated by Petrie et al. (1997).

Polygonum persicaria is a common weed and thus may be a source of infection of Rhizoctonia solani, especially on sandy soils (Jager et al. 1982).

A new smut sp. was found parasitizing the ovaries of Polygonum persicaria (Delm et a. 1985)

Polygonum persicaria is a good host for the giant faba bean race of D. dipsaci (nematode) (Augustin & Sikora 1989).

Polygonum spp. is susceptible to Heterodera schachtii (Gleissl & Bachthaler 1989).

Polygonum natans and P. coccineum are attacked by Lycaena hyllus larvae (MacLean & Maclean 1990).

 

4.3) Other intraspecific interactions

Seeds of Polygonum pensylvanicum and other species examined for the presence of seed borne bacteria showed that seed deterioration by potential fungal seed pathogens (Alternaria alternantha, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Epicoccum purpurascens and Fusarium sp.) may be limited by antifungal activity by 80% of the bacteria found (Kremer 1987).

Fungistatic activity of water (brew and macerate), alcohol and acetone extracts from Polygonum bistorta, P. convolvulus [Fallopia convolvulus], P. aviculare, P. sachalinense [Reynoutria sachalinensis], P. hydropiper and P. persicaria was demostrated in laboratory conditions by a diffusion method against Alternaria alternata, A. solani, Phytophthora infestans, Cladosporium herbarum, Colletotrichum coccodes and Verticillium lycopersici (Sas-Piotrowska et al. 1996).

P. persicaria can survive in cattle manure for more than 16 weeks (Schokker 1988).

Polygonum persicaria and other weed species can reduce common spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) populations in hop gardens and under normal pest pressures, weed populations can prevent mite damage on hop plants. However, under strong pressure, the weeds are Extracts of Polygonum bistorta, F. convolvulus and P. persicaria reduce gradually aphid population on mock orange (Philadelphus coronarius) sprouts, although their aphicidal efficiency under laboratory conditions is relatively low (up to 66 according to the Henderson-Tilton test). Spraying of aphid colonies with extracts also reduce the abundance and number of primary aphid parasitoids in the laboratory (Barczak 1994).

 

5) REPRODUCTION

5.1) Flowering, pollen and embryonic develpment

Analysis using isozyme variability comparing it with reproductive effort, has shown that mean reproductive effort does not correlate with mean population heterozygosity nor does individual reproductive effort correlate with individual heterozygosity. This shows that P. pensylvanicum exhibits several of the features which have been predicted for weedy plant species (Kubetin & Schaal 1981).

A new smut sp. has been found parasitizing the ovaries of Polygonum persicaria. It differs from S. hydropiperis and S. bosniaca by host and by its reticulated teliospore ornamentation. On the basis of morphological and ultrastructural characters, and considering recent data on siderophore formation and 5S ribosomal RNA sequences, it was concluded that (1) S. spp. are not related to Ustilago spp. parasitizing Poaceae; (2) Sphacelotheca is restricted to spp. parasitizing Polygonaceae; and (3) spp. of Sphacelotheca, Microbotryum and those U. spp. parasitizing Polygonaceae flowers are closely related (Delm et a. 1985)

The aerial parts of P. lapathifolium, P. scabrum and P. tormentosum have shown to be rich in flavonoids during flowering and early fruiting (Vysochina et al. 1987).

 

6) HABITAT

Polygonum lapathifolium, P. pensylvanicum, P. persicaria and P. scabrum are closely related and morphologically similar smartweeds. They often occur together on river banks in S. Ontario. Their habitats and distributions differ, however. P. lapathifolium is found on damp, disturbed sites throughout the province. P. pensylvanicum occurs on well drained soils of lake shores, river banks and occasionally on farmland in S. Ontario. P. persicaria and P. scabrum have been introduced from Eurasia. In Ontario, they are found on wasteland and in cultivated regions, where they are locally common as weeds in cereals (Staniforth & Cavers 1979).

Seedling emergence is affected by light and soil moisture independently of habitat (wood-land versus crop-land). Survivorship is highest at intermediate light levels (levels between 50 to 1000 mu Einstein m-2s-1), regardless of the soil's water-holding capacity. Flowering starts much later at low light levels than at intermediate or high light levels (Cid-Benevento & Werner 1986, Cid-Benevento 1985).

Soil type does not affect germination (Brown et al 1983).

Predominance of Polygonum pensylvanicum tends to be greater in fields with maize/soybean rotation where non-till systems have been stabilshed for 10 yr versus conventional till (Wrucke & Arnold 1982).

The weed flora of most New Zealand asparagus crops has changed rapidly due in part to cultural practices but largely due to the repeated use of herbicides. Broadleaf weeds that have emerged as specific problems are Gnaphalium luteoalbum in fields where uracil or triazine herbicides have been used repeatedly, and triazine-resistant Chenopodium album and Polygonum persicaria as a result of reliance on triazine herbicides (Rahman et al. 1996).

Of the species found on peatland prior to reclamation, Polygonum persicaria, P. lapathifolium, and other weed species proliferated after reclamation. The Polygonum species are introduced into peatland in drainage water (MacNaedhe & Curran 1980).

P. persicaria seeds collected from 11 natural habitats varied greatly in length, width, thickness and weight (100 seed weight from 116 to 192 mg). Germination ranged from 12.5 to 90% and the length of dormancy also varied between the samples. The seeds could be sown in the autumn or spring but autumn sowing gave earlier emergence (Tikhonova 1979).

In a survey of 123 maize fields, Polygonum persicaria was one of the weed species most important (Doyon & Bouchard 1981).

 

7) MANAGEMENT

7.1) Chemical

P. pensylvanicum plants have produced mutants with resistance to atrazine in Iowa (Dekker et al. 1991), in France reports have been publish of resistance to triazines (Gasquez & Compoint 1980).

In a herbicide evaluation Nitrofen and propachlor failed to control Stellaria media and Polygonum persicaria (Bolger 1972). Populations of P. persicaria resistat to atrazine have been reported in France (Gasquez & Compoint 1980).

P. pensylvanicum resistent to the herbicide oryzalin when used to control weeds on Potatoes (Sieczka &Creighton 1982)

Soybean oil and petroleum oil concentrates combined with some herbicides can give excellent control and could help in reducing the amount of herbicide used to control P. pensylvanicum (Chaney & Kapusta 1983).

Herbicide applications can be reduced to 67% when combining application and cultivation (Pleasant et al. 1994)

From weed surveys, Polygonum aviculare and other two weed species account for 86% of 29 weed species identified in Spain farm fields (Hernando et al. 1987, Carnegie 1974).

Polygonum persicaria grew well in pear orchards receiving lower herbicide rates (Bastian 1987).

 

7.2) Non-chemical

Ustilago urticulosa is a smut fungus that infects the developing flowers and seeds of Polygonum pensylvanicum and could be used as biological control by dusting or emulsion spray of spores. The fungus causes a swelling of the host inflorescence and destruction of reproductive tissue. The fungus produces numerous purple spores which are released into the air to infect other flowers of P. pensylvanicum. (Jordan 1980).

The scarabaeid Popillia japonica on tobacco in South Carolina can be used to control smartweed (Polygonum pensylvanicum), which also reduces tobaco yield. The beetles are allowed to feed in smartweed in skip rows (usually every 5th row in tobacco fields) until the weed is almost eliminated and are then controlled by spraying carbaryl on the skip rows (Manley 1985).

In field trials conducted at 64 locations in Iowa in 1987-91 indicated that 22% reduction in yield is a normal lost when controling weeds such as P. pensylvanicum by cultivation alone (Hartzler et al. 1993)

Rotary cultivation was found to mix weed seeds in the upper few cm of soil (in contrast to the deep burial and dormancy inducing effect of ploughing) but repeated rotary cultivations followed by grassing down for a short period did not reduce weed populations in subsequent crops (MacNaedhe & Curran 1980).

Several crop residues were evaluated for their ability to suppress weed growth. On a muck soil, living sorghum plants reduced the total weed biomass and greatly reduced DM production of Polygonum persicaria. A sterile agar bioassay was used to further investigate the allelopathic mechanism of the sorghums. Shoot growth of Echinochloa crus-galli was reduced when seedlings were transplanted into agar in which sorghum had grown for at least 15 days. These results suggest that sorghum may utilize root exudates to suppress the growth of neighbouring plants (DeFrank & Putnam 1979).

A new smut sp. has been found parasitizing the ovaries of Polygonum persicaria (Delm et a. 1985)

Solarization can be used to control Polygonum and other weed species in the greenhouse (Braun et al. 1988, Braun et al. 1987).

 

8) USAGE AND/OR PROPERTIES

Polygonum pensylvanicum have low in digestibility, indicating poor forage quality (Hoveland et al. 1986, Temme et al. 1979, Marten & Andersen 1975).

P. pensylvanicum provides adecuate nutrition to Mallards (Dabbert et al. 1996).

Interspecific differences in free and protein amino-acid contents were found among Polygonum aviculare, P. persicaria, P. lapathifolium, P. hydropiper and P. mite. The contents were highest in P. aviculare followed by P. persicaria. In all species, leaves contained more amino acids than stems. It was concluded that the higher conc****************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************d the Plumbaginales should be separated from the Caryophyllales; and that the separation of Fagopyrum from other genera in the Polygoneae is strongly supported by molecular evidence (Yasui & Ohnishi 1996).

 

10) OTHER TOPICS

Polygonum pensylvanicum is one of the adventitious weeds species introduced to Norway between 1970-86 associated with the increase of volume of soyabean imports from the USA (Ouren 1987).

A mail survey of Ohio growers revealed that Polygonum pensylvanicum is one of the most severe problematic weeds, but its distribution decrease with increasing diversity of crop rotation (Loux & Berry 1991).

Shape features using image analysis to distinguish young weed species could be very useful in the future design of advanced spot spraying applications (Meyer et al. 1994).

Tannic substances, vitamin C and other constituents were determined from P. aviculare, P. hydropiper and P. persicaria. P. hydropiper had the highest tannin content (5.5%). Vitamin C in the 3 species averaged 31 160 mug/100 g. In P. aviculare and P. hydropiper formic, acetic, tartaric, valerianic, glucuronic and galacturonic acids were found by paper chromatography (Shalamova et al. 1983).

Lectotypes exist for the following species: Polygonum amphibium, Polygonum foliosum, Polygonum hydropiper, Polygonum lapathifolium subsp. leptocladum, Polygonum pallidum and Polygonum persicaria. A neotype is available for Polygonum persicaria var. incana. Polygonum ruderale is a superfluous nomenclatural synonym of Polygonum persicaria. The following new combinations are made: Persicaria lapathifolia subsp. pallida, Persicaria lapathifolia var. incana and Persicaria lapathifolia var. linicola (Ekman & Knutsson 1994).

Polygonum persicaria has shown to be tolerant to low temperature treatment (0 C). Polygonum persicaria has showed a fast recovery of chlorophyll fluorescence even after 420 h at 0 C. The technique used, based on the measurement of emission spectra, detected chlorophyll fluorescence in a few milliseconds without pre-darkened adaptation (Paola et al 1993).

Spectra of leaves of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) and of 4 weed species (Datura stramonium, Polygonum lapathifolium, P. convolvulus [Fallopia convolvulus] and P. persicaria) in the 380 to 1068 nm band have been analysed to determine the feasibility of using reflectance techniques to discriminate between crops and weeds. The discriminant analysis at 440, 548, 676, 732, 752 and 976 nm has allowed correct classification of 87.9% of the species (Pardo et al. 1993).

The archaeological evidence indicates that Polygonum erectum was domesticated before 200 AD for Mississippian and Fort Ancient (Ohio River) peoples (Watson et al. 1989).

The aerial parts of P. lapathifolium, P. scabrum and P. tomentosum have shown to be rich in flavonoids during flowering and early fruiting (Vysochina et al. 1987).

 

**BIBLIOGRAPHY**

1) SEED

+ Seed production

Belcher,-Earl-W.. 1971. Influence of selected environmental factors on seed production in Polygonum pensylvanicum. 1971. iv, 156 leaves.

Forcella-F; Peterson-DH; Barbour-JC. 1996. Timing and measurement of weed seed shed in corn (Zea mays). Weed-Technology. 1996, 10: 3, 535-543; 15 ref.

Kostyal-Z. 1985. Study on the seed production of Polygonum persicaria. A Polygonum persicaria magprodukciojanak vizsgalata.Novenyvedelem. 1985, 21: 4, 159-161.

Rasmussen-IA. 1993. Seed production of a mixture of two Polygonum species at normal to very low herbicide doses. Brighton crop protection conference, weeds. Proceedings of an international conference, Brighton, UK, 22-25 November 1993. 1993, Vol. 1, 281-286; 14 ref. British Crop Protection Council (BCPC); Farnham; UK

Tikhonova,-V.L.; Makeeva,-I.IU. 1984. Morphological variability and productivity of Polygonum persicaria L. at its introduction in the area around Moscow. Rastit-Resur. Leningrad : "Nauka". 1984. v. 20 (4) p. 510-514.

 

+ Seed survival and seed embryo

Belcher,-E-W. 1972. Germination of smartweed (Polygonum pensylvanicum L.) seed. Ass-Off-Seed-Anal-Proc, 1972, 62: 94-97.

Conn,-J.S. 1990. Seed viability and dormancy of 17 weed species after burial for 4.7 years in Alaska. Weed-Sci. Champaign, Ill. : Weed Science Society of America. Mar 1990. v. 38 (2) p. 134-138.

Conn-JS; Deck-RE. 1995. Seed viability and dormancy of 17 weed species after 9.7 years of burial in Alaska. Weed-Science. 1995, 43: 4, 583-585; 10 ref.

Hammerton,-J-L; Jalloq,-M-C. 1970. Studies on weed species of the genus Polygonum. VI. environmental effects on seed weight, seed polymorphism and germination behaviour in Polygonum lapathifolium and Polygonum persicaria Weed-Res, Sept 1970, 10 (3): 204-217.

Jordan,-J.L.; Jordan,-L.S.; Jordan,-C.M. 1983. Protein body digestion in Polygonum pensylvanicum embryos during prechilling [Structure]. Acta-Bot-Neerl. Leiden, Netherlands : Koninklijke Nederlandse Botanische Vereniging. Aug 1983. v. 32 (4) p. 333-336.

Jordan,-J.L.; Staniforth,-D.W.; Jordan,-C.M. 1982. Parental stress and prechilling effects on Pennsylvania smartweed (Polygonum pensylvanicum) achenes Weeds, crop competition. Weed-Sci. Champaign, Ill., Weed Science Society of America. May 1982. v. 30 (3) p. 243-248. ill.

Jordan-JL. 1980. Ustilago urticulosa: biological control for Pennsylvania smartweed?. Proceedings North Central Weed Control Conference. 1980, Volume 35, 82.

Kerpen,-W.; Schmidt,-R.R. 1982. Different behaviour of biotest plants in various soils after application of metamitron [Polygonum persicaria, Galinsoga parviflora, weeds, effect of magnesium, herbicides]. Unterschiedliches verhalten von Biotestpflanzen auf Metamitron in verschiedenen Boden. Meded-Fac-Landbouwwet-Rijksuniv. Gent, Belgium : Het Faculteit. 1982. v. 47 (1) p. 73-83.

Kirkpatrick,-B.L.; Bazzaz,-F.A. 1979. Influence of certain pathogenic fungi on seed germination and seedling survival of four colonizing annuals Abutilon theophrasti, Datura stramonium, Ipomoea hederacea, and Polygonum pensylvanicum. J-Appl-Ecol. Oxford, Blackwell Scientific Publications. Aug 1979. v. 16 (2) p. 515-527.

Klevorn-TB; Peters-EJ. 1980. Some effects of plant residues on weed seed germination. Proceedings North Central Weed Control Conference. 1980, Volume 35, 81-82.

Neubauer,-B-F. 1971. The development of the achene of Polygonum pensylvanicum: embryo, endosperm, and pericarp Amer-J-Bot, Aug 1971, 58 (1): 655-664.

Pickett-STA; Bazzaz-FA . 1978. Organization of an assemblage of early successional species on a soil moisture gradient. Ecology. 1978, 59: 6, 1248-1255; 51 ref.

Stoller-EW; Wax-LM. 1973. Periodicity of germination and emergence of some annual weeds. Weed-Science. 1973, 21: 6, 574-580; 25 ref.

Thompson-AJ; Jones-NE; Blair-AM. 1997. The effect of temperature on viability of imbibed weed seeds. Annals-of-Applied-Biology. 1997, 130: 1, 123-134; 11 ref.

 

+ Dispersion

Cronk-JK; Mitsch-WJ. 1994. Periphyton productivity on artificial and natural surfaces in constructed freshwater wetlands under different hydrologic regimes. Aquatic-Botany. 1994, 48: 3-4, 325-341; 29 ref.

Fenner-M . 1978. A comparison of the abilities of colonizers and closed-turf species to establish from seed in artificial swards. Journal-of-Ecology. 1978, 66: 3, 953-963; 21 ref.

McConnaughay-KDM; Bazzaz-FA. 1987. The relationship between gap size and performance of several colonizing annuals. Ecology. 1987, 68: 2, 411-416; 21 ref.

Staniforth-RJ; Cavers-PB . 1973. Dispersal of smartweed achenes by cottontails. Abstracts, 1973 Meeting of the Weed Science Society of America, Atlanta, Georgia. 1973, 51.

Staniforth-RJ; Cavers-PB. 1976. An experimental study of water dispersal in Polygonum spp. Canadian-Journal-of-Botany. 1976, 54: 22, 2587-2596; 25 ref.

Staniforth-RJ; Cavers-PB. 1977. The importance of cottontail rabbits in the dispersal of Polygonum spp. Journal-of-Applied-Ecology. 1977, 14: 1, 261-268; 20 ref.

Tonkin-JHB; Phillipson-A . 1973. The presence of weed seeds in cereal seed drills in England and Wales during spring 1970. Journal-of-the-National-Institute-of-Agricultural-Botany. 1973, 13: 1, 1-8; 10 ref.

Vleeshouwers,-L.M. 1997. Modelling the effect of temperature, soil penetration resistance, burial depth and seed weight on pre-emergence growth of weeds. Annals-of-Botany (United Kingdom). (1997). v. 79(5) p. 553-563.

 

+ Somatic polymorphism

Kerpen,-W.; Schmidt,-R.R. 1982. Different behaviour of biotest plants [Polygonum persicaria, Galinsoga parviflora] in various soils [in France; in Germany, F.R.; after application of metamitron herbicide]. Unterschiedliches Verhalten von Biotestpflanzen auf Metamitron in verschiedenen Boeden. 34. International Symposium on Crop Protection. Gent (Belgium). 4 May 1982. Internationaal-Symposium-over-Fytofarmacie-en-Fytiatrie (Belgium). Rijksuniversiteit Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Gent. (1982). v. 34(pt.1) p. 73-83.

Hammerton,-J-L; Jalloq,-M-C. 1970. Studies on weed species of the genus Polygonum. VI. environmental effects on seed weight, seed polymorphism and germination behaviour in Polygonum lapathifolium and Polygonum persicaria Weed-Res, Sept 1970, 10 (3): 204-217.

Vleeshouwers,-L.M. 1997. Modelling the effect of temperature, soil penetration resistance, burial depth and seed weight on pre-emergence growth of weeds. Annals-of-Botany (United Kingdom). (1997). v. 79(5) p. 553-563.

 

+ Seed dormancy

Baskin,-J.M.; Baskin,-C.C. 1987. Temperature requirements for after-ripening in buried seeds of four summer annual weeds. Weed-Res. Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications. Oct 1987. v. 27 (5) p. 385-389.

Baskin-JM; Baskin-CC. 1987. Temperature requirements for after-ripening in buried seeds of four summer annual weeds. Weed-Research,-UK. 1987, 27: 5, 385-389.

Baskin-CC; Baskin-JM. 1986. Temperature requirements for afterripening in buried seeds of four summer annual weeds. American-Journal-of-Botany. 1986, 73: 5, 662.

Bayer,-David-Edmon. 1958. Some factors affecting the germination of seeds and plant responses to herbicides of three species of smartweed Polygonum pensylvanicum L., Polygonum persicaria L., and Polygonum lapathifolium L. 131 leaves.

Belcher-EW Jr. 1972. Germination of smartweed (Polygonum pensylvanicum L.) seed. Proceedings-of-the-Association-of-Official-Seed-Analysts. 1972, Volume 62, 94-97; 6 ref.

Belcher-EW Jr.. 1972. Evaluating the duration of dormancy in Polygonum pensylvanicum. Proceedings-of-the-Association-of-Official-Seed-Analysts. 1972, Volume 62, 98-100; 1 ref.

Bouwmeester-HJ; Karssen-CM. 1989. Environmental factors influencing the expression of dormancy patterns in weed seeds. Annals-of-Botany. 1989, 63: 1, 113-120; 21 ref.

Bouwmeester-HJ; Karssen-CM. 1992. The dual role of temperature in the regulation of the seasonal changes in dormancy and germination of seeds of Polygonum persicaria L. Oecologia. 1992, 90: 1, 88-94; 26 ref.

Buhler-DD. 1997. Effects of tillage and light environment on emergence of 13 annual weeds. Weed-Technology. 1997, 11: 3, 496-501.

Cho,-K.Y.; Kim,-J.S.; Kim,-Y.S. 1987. Germination induction of some weed seeds stored under dry and low temperature conditions. Korean-Journal-of-Weed-Science (Korea R.). (Jun 1987). v. 7(1) p. 19-28.

Conn,-J.S. 1990. Seed viability and dormancy of 17 weed species after burial for 4.7 years in Alaska. Weed-Sci. Champaign, Ill. : Weed Science Society of America. Mar 1990. v. 38 (2) p. 134-138.

Conn-JS; Deck-RE. 1995. Seed viability and dormancy of 17 weed species after 9.7 years of burial in Alaska. Weed-Science. 1995, 43: 4, 583-585; 10 ref.

Ernst,-David-Floyd. 1971. Amylase activity in dormant and germinating seeds of Polygonum pensylvanicum. 1971. iii, 96 leaves.

French-RC; Leather-GR . 1979. Screening of nonanal and related volatile flavor compounds on the germination of 18 species of weed seed. Journal-of-Agricultural-and-Food-Chemistry. 1979, 27: 4, 828-832; 14 ref.

Hammerton,-J-L; Jalloq,-M-C. 1970. Studies on weed species of the genus Polygonum. VI. environmental effects on seed weight, seed polymorphism and germination behaviour in Polygonum lapathifolium and Polygonum persicaria Weed-Res, Sept 1970, 10 (3): 204-217.

Jordan,-J.L. 1982. Some effects of overwinter burial on Polygonum pensylvanicum L. achenes Annual weeds, achene wall structure and seed germination. Ann-Bot. London, Academic Press. Mar 1982. v. 49 (3) p. 417-419. ill.

Jordan,-J.L.; Jordan,-L.S.; Jordan,-C.M. 1983. Some effects of sulphuric acid scarification on Polygonum pensylvanicum L. achenes. Ann-Bot. London : Academic Press. June 1983. v. 51 (6) p. 855-858. ill.

Jordan,-J.L.; Staniforth,-D.W.; Jordan,-C.M. 1982. Parental stress and prechilling effects on Pennsylvania smartweed (Polygonum pensylvanicum) achenes Weeds, crop competition. Weed-Sci. Champaign, Ill., Weed Science Society of America. May 1982. v. 30 (3) p. 243-248. ill.

Jordan-JL . 1981. Natural and induced scarification of Pennsylvania smartweed achenes. Proceedings North Central Weed Control Conference, 1981, Vol.36, 149-150; 7 ref.

Jordan-JL . 1981. Seed dormancy in pennsylvania smartweed and barnyardgrass. Dissertation-Abstracts-International,-B. 1981, 42: 4, 1256-1257; 97 pp.

Karssen,-C.M. 1981. Patterns of change in dormancy during burial of seeds in soil Polygonum persicaria, Senecio vulgaris, Sisymbrium officinale, Chenopodium bonus-henricus, Chenopodium album. Isr-J-Bot. Jerusalem : Weizmann Science Press of Israel. 1980/1981. v. 29 (1/4) p. 65-73.

Klevorn-TB; Peters-EJ. 1980. Effects of plant residues on germination of weed seeds. Proceedings North Central Weed Control Conference, 1979 (Abstracts). 1980, Vol. 34, 15-16.

Ku-YC; Seong-KY; Song-DY; Lee-SB. 1996. Studies on dormancy and germination of paddy weeds. Korean-Journal-of-Weed-Science. 1996, 16: 1, 8-13; 11 ref.

Leather,-G.R.; French,-R.C. 1981. Increase in reducing sugars as the cause of hyperimbibition of smartweed seeds induced by volatile aldehydes Polygonum pensylvanicum, abstract only. Proc-Annu-Meet-Northeast-Weed-Sci-Soc. Beltsville, Md., The Society. p. 89.

Leather-GR; French-RC . 1980. Increased imbibition of dormant smartweed seed by nonanal and related flavor volatiles. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Society of Plant Physiologists held at Pullman, Washington, August 1980]. Plant-Physiology. 1980, 65: 6, Supplement, 139.

Lonchamp-JP; Gora-M . 1980. Effect of burial on the germinative requirements of weeds. Effet de l'enfouissement sur les exigences germinatives des mauvaises herbes. Proceedings of the 6th International Colloquium on Weed Ecology, Biology and Systematics, organized by COLUMA-EWRS, Montpellier, 1980. 1980, Volume I, 113-122; 19 ref.

Lovato-A; Viggiani-P . 1974. Laboratory germination and field emergence of some weed species. [Paper given at]: Convegno annuale della Societa Italiana di Agronomia, Turin, 1973. Rivista-di-Agronomia. 1974, 8: 2-3, 108-112; 9 ref.

Mensah-SI. 1984. Studies on the germination and dormancy of Polygonum persicaria L. Thesis, Glasgow University; UK. 277pp.

Pickett,-S-T-A; Bazzaz,-F-A. 1976. Divergence of two co-occurring successional annuals [Polygonum pensylvanicum and Abutilon theophrasti] on a soil moisture gradient. Ecology-Durham, Winter 1976, 57 (1): 169-176.

Pickett-STA; Bazzaz-FA . 1978. Organization of an assemblage of early successional species on a soil moisture gradient. Ecology. 1978, 59: 6, 1248-1255; 51 ref.

Roberts-HA; Neilson-JE. 1980. Seed survival and periodicity of seedling emergence in some species of Atriplex, Chenopodium, Polygonum and Rumex. Annals-of-Applied-Biology. 1980, 94: 1, 111-120; 28 ref.

Romussi,-G; Ciarallo,-G. 1974. 5,7-dihydroxychromone from Polygonum persicaria seeds Phytochemistry, Dec 1974, 13 (12): 2890-2891.

Simon-EW. 1981. The low temperature limit for growth and germination. Effects-of-low-temperatures-on-biological-membranes-Morris,-G.J.;-Clarke,-A.-Editors. 1981, 173-188; ref. at end of book. Academic Press; London; UK

Stalter,-R.; Kincaid,-D.T. Buried viable seed in the right-of-way of the Long Island Expressway, New York. Proc-Annu-Meet-Northeast-Weed-Sci-Soc. Beltsville, Md. : The Society. 1986. v. 40 p. 104-108. 1986

Staniforth,-R.J.; Cavers,-P.B. 1979. Field and laboratory germination responses of achenes of Polygonum lapathifolium, Polygonum pensylvanicum, and Polygonum persicaria Weeds of grain crops. Can-J-Bot. Ottawa Apr 15, 1979. v. 57 (8) p. 877-885.

Stoller-EW; Wax-LM 1974. Dormancy changes and the fate of some annual weed seeds in the soil. Weed-Science. 1974, 22: 2, 151-155; 22 ref.

Stoller-EW; Wax-LM. 1973. Periodicity of germination and emergence of some annual weeds. Weed-Science. 1973, 21: 6, 574-580; 25 ref.

Taylorson-RB. 1972. Phytochrome controlled changes in dormancy and germination of buried weed seeds. Weed-Science. 1972, 20: 5, 417-422; 20 ref.

Tikhonova-VL. 1979. Characteristics of Polygonum persicaria sowing material. Byulleten'-Glavnogo-Botanicheskogo-Sada. 1979, No.114, 78-83; 7 ref.

Vincent-EM; Roberts-EH . 1979. The influence of chilling, light and nitrate on the germination of dormant seeds of common weed species. Seed-Science-and-Technology. 1979, 7: 1, 3-14; 5 ref.

Vincent-EM; Roberts-EH. 1977. The interaction of light, nitrate and alternating temperature in promoting the germination of dormant seeds of common weed species. Seed-Science-and-Technology. 1977, 5: 2, 659-670; 13 ref.

Vleeshouwers-LM . 1997. Modelling the effect of temperature, soil penetration resistance, burial depth and seed weight on pre-emergence growth of weeds. Annals-of-Botany. 1997, 79: 5, 553-563; 35 ref.

Vleeshouwers-LM. 1997. Modelling weed emergence patterns. 165 pp.; ref. at ends of chapters. Landbouwuniversiteit Wageningen (Wageningen Agricultural University), Wageningen; Netherlands.

Vleeshouwers-LM; Kropff-MJ. 1996. Prediction of weed emergence in the field. Brown-H (ed.); Cussans-GW (ed.); Devine-MD (ed.); Duke-SO (ed.); Fernandez-Quintanilla-C (ed.); Helweg-A (ed.); Labrada-RE (ed.); Landes-M (ed.); Kudsk-P (ed.); Streibig-JC Proceedings of the second international weed control congress, Copenhagen, Denmark, 25-28 June 1996: Volumes 1-4. 1996, 209-214; 12 ref. Department of Weed Control and Pesticide Ecology; Slagelse; Denmark

Warwick,-M.A. 1984. Buried seeds in arabl soils in Scotland [Weed population of Chenopodium album, Poa annua, Polygonum aviculare, Polygonum persicaria, Spergula arvensis, Stellaria media]. Weed-Res. Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications. Aug 1984. v. 24 (4) p. 261-268.

Yamamoto-H; Ohba-T . 1977. Studies on ecological changes and control of weeds in upland irrigation culture. 3. Effect of soil moisture on dormancy breaking of seeds of principal annual weeds on upland fields. Weed-Research,-Japan. 1977, 22: 1, 29-33; 7 ref.

Yamamoto-H; Ohba-T. 1977. Studies on ecological changes and control of weeds in upland irrigation culture. 4. Effect of soil moisture on emergence patterns of principal annual weeds on upland fields. Weed-Research,-Japan. 1977, 22: 1, 33-38; 11 ref.

 

+ Seed bank

Barralis-G; Chadoeuf-R; Lonchamp-JP. 1988. Longevity of annual weed seeds in a cultivated soil. Longevite des semences de mauvaises herbes annuelles dans un sol cultive. Weed-Research,-UK. 1988, 28: 6, 407-418; 30 ref.

Barralis-G; Dessaint-F; Chadoeuf-R . 1996. Relationship between the seedbank and the actual weed flora in agricultural soils in the Cote-d'Or. Relation flore potentielle-flore reelle de sols agricoles de Cote-d'Or. Agronomie. 1996, 16: 7, 453-463; 33 ref.

Baskin,-J.M.; Baskin,-C.C. 1987. Temperature requirements for after-ripening in buried seeds of four summer annual weeds. Weed-Res. Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications. Oct 1987. v. 27 (5) p. 385-389.

Borin-M; Zanin-G; Zuin-MC; Cook-HF (ed.); Lee-HC. 1995. The comparison of seed banks in conventional and ridge-tilled soils in north-eastern Italy. Soil management in sustainable agriculture. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Sustainable Agriculture, Wye College, University of London, UK, 31 August to 4 September 1993. 1995, 544-555; 25 ref.

Buhler-DD. 1997. Effects of tillage and light environment on emergence of 13 annual weeds. Weed-Technology. 1997, 11: 3, 496-501.

Conn-JS; Deck-RE. 1995. Seed viability and dormancy of 17 weed species after 9.7 years of burial in Alaska. Weed-Science. 1995, 43: 4, 583-585; 10 ref.

Cronk-JK; Mitsch-WJ. 1994. Periphyton productivity on artificial and natural surfaces in constructed freshwater wetlands under different hydrologic regimes. Aquatic-Botany. 1994, 48: 3-4, 325-341; 29 ref.

Jordan,-J.L. 1982. Some effects of overwinter burial on Polygonum pensylvanicum L. achenes Annual weeds, achene wall structure and seed germination. Ann-Bot. London, Academic Press. Mar 1982. v. 49 (3) p. 417-419. ill.

Karssen,-C.M. 1981. Patterns of change in dormancy during burial of seeds in soil Polygonum persicaria, Senecio vulgaris, Sisymbrium officinale, Chenopodium bonus-henricus, Chenopodium album. Isr-J-Bot. Jerusalem : Weizmann Science Press of Israel. 1980/1981. v. 29 (1/4) p. 65-73.

Lewis-J . 1971. Crop and weed seed longevity in soils. Report.-Welsh-Plant-Breeding-Station. 1971, 39-40. Plas Gogerddan, Aberystwyth.; UK

Macchia-M; Cozzani-A; Bonari-E. 1996. Effects of soil tillage on weed seed bank structure and dynamics in a biennial winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-soyabean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) rotation. Effetto della lavorazione principale sulla struttura e la dinamica della `seed bank' in un avvicendamento frumento tenero (Triticum aestivum L.)-soia (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Rivista-di-Agronomia. 1996, 30: 2, 136-141; 23 ref.

Parrish-JAD; Bazzaz-FA . 1976. Underground niche separation in successional plants. Ecology. 1976, 57: 6, 1281-1288; 38 ref.

Simpson-MJA; Carnegie-HM. 1989. Dicotyledonous weeds of spring cereal crops in north-east Scotland. Weed-Research,-UK. 1989, 29: 1, 39-43; 8 ref.

Stalter,-R.; Kincaid,-D.T. 1986. Buried viable seed in the right-of-way of the Long Island Expressway, New York. Proc-Annu-Meet-Northeast-Weed-Sci-Soc. Beltsville, Md. : The Society. 1986. v. 40 p. 104-108.

Stalter-R; Kincaid-DT. 1986. The role of seed banks in fill soils at the Fresh Kills Landfill, Staten Island, New York. Proceedings, 40th annual meeting of the Northeastern Weed Science Society. 1986, vol. 40, 110-113; 9 ref.

Stoller-EW; Wax-LM 1974. Dormancy changes and the fate of some annual weed seeds in the soil. Weed-Science. 1974, 22: 2, 151-155; 22 ref.

Stoller-EW; Wax-LM. 1973. Periodicity of germination and emergence of some annual weeds. Weed-Science. 1973, 21: 6, 574-580; 25 ref.

Vleeshouwers,-L.M. 1997. Modelling the effect of temperature, soil penetration resistance, burial depth and seed weight on pre-emergence growth of weeds. Annals-of-Botany (United Kingdom). (1997). v. 79(5) p. 553-563.

Warwick,-M.A. 1984. Buried seeds in arabl soils in Scotland [Weed population of Chenopodium album, Poa annua, Polygonum aviculare, Polygonum persicaria, Spergula arvensis, Stellaria media]. Weed-Res. Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications. Aug 1984. v. 24 (4) p. 261-268.

Wiese-AM; Binning-LK. 1982. Effect of tillage date on weed spectrum emerging. Proceedings, North Central Weed Control Conference. 11-12. North Central Weed Control Conference, Inc.; napolis, USA.

Wrucke-MA; Arnold-WE. 1982. The long-term influence of reduced tillage on weed and soil factors. Proceedings, North Central Weed Control Conference. 1982, 50-51.

 

2) DEVELOPMENT

+ Architecture, size and phenalogic stage

Bailey-IJ; Buchanan-GA; Walker-RH; Hoveland-CS . 1980. Phenological development of selected weed species. Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Meeting of the Southern Weed Science Society. 1980, 84.

Cid-Benevento-CR; Werner-PA. 1986. Local distributions of old-field and woodland annual plant species: demography, physiological tolerances and allocation of biomass of five species grown in experimental light and soil-moisture gradients. Journal-of-Ecology. 1986, 74: 3, 857-880; 7 fig., 5 tab.; 44 ref.

Farnsworth-EJ; Bazzaz-FA. 1995. Inter- and intra-generic differences in growth, reproduction, and fitness of nine herbaceous annual species grown in elevated CO2 environments. Oecologia. 1995, 104: 4, 454-466; 51 ref.

Kapusta,-G.; Krausz,-R.F.; Khan,-M.; Matthews,-J.L. 1994. Effect of nicosulfuron rate, adjuvant, and weed size on annual weed control in corn (Zea mays). Weed-technol. Champaign, Ill. : The Weed Science Society of America. Oct/Dec 1994. v. 8 (4) p. 696-702.

Lee-HS; Zangerl-AR; Garbutt-K; Bazzaz-FA; Hee-sun-Lee. 1986. Within and between species variation in response to environmental gradients in Polygonum pensylvanicum and Polygonum virginianum. Oecologia. 1986, 68: 4, 606-610; 13 ref.

San-Martin,-J.; Contreras,-D.; Ramirez,-C. 1988. [Phenological studies on rice weeds in Central Chile]. Estudios fenologicos en malezas de arrozales cultivados en Chile Central. Turrialba (IICA). (Jan-Mar 1988). v. 38(1) p. 23-30.

Nakatani-K; Kusanagi-T. 1991. Effect of photoperiod and temperature on growth characteristics, especially heading or flower bud appearance of upland weeds. Weed-Research-Tokyo. 1991, 36: 1, 74-81; 23 ref.

Simon-EW. 1981. The low temperature limit for growth and germination. Effects-of-low-temperatures-on-biological-membranes-Morris,-G.J.;-Clarke,-A.-Editors. 1981, 173-188; ref. at end of book. Academic Press; London; UK

Steckel-GJ; Wax-LM; Simmons-FW; Phillips-WH II. 1997. Glufosinate efficacy on annual weeds is influenced by rate and growth stage. Weed-Technology. 1997, 11: 3, 484-488.

Thomas,-S.C.; Bazzaz,-F.A. 1993. The genetic component in plant size hierarchies: norms of reaction to density in a Polygonum species. Ecol-Monogr. Tempe, Ariz. : Ecological Society of America. Aug 1993. v. 63 (3) p. 231-249.

Tremmel,-D.-C; Bazzaz,-F.-A. 1993. How neighbor canopy architecture affects target plant performance. Ecology. v. 74 Oct. '93 p. 2114-24

Tremmel,-D.-C; Bazzaz,-F.-A. 1995. Plant architecture and allocation in different neighborhoods: implications for competitive success. Ecology. v. 76 Jan. '95 p. 262-71

Zangerl,-A.R.; Bazzaz,-F.A. 1983. Responses of an early and a late successional species of Polygonum to variations in resource availability Polygonum pensylvanicum, Polygonum virginianum, greenhouse study. Oecologia. Berlin, W. Ger. : Springer International. 1983. v. 56 (2/3) p. 397-404.

 

+ Somatic polymorphism

Czech,-B. 1981. Morphological and ecological properties of Polygonum persicaria L. and Polygonum tomentosum Schrk. in cereal crops and root-crops. Wlasciwosci morfologiczne i ekologiczne Polygonum persicaria L. i Polygonum tomentosum Schrk. w uprawach zbozowych i okopowych. Pr-Bot. Warszawa : Panstwowe Wydawn. Naukowe. 1981. (8) p. 145-171. ill.

Jordan-JL. 1980. The growth habit of Pennsylvania smartweed and velvetleaf. Proceedings North Central Weed Control Conference, 1979. 1980, Vol. 34, 48.

Krylova,-I.L.; Pogorelova,-O.V.; Tikhonova,-V.L. 1980. Diagnostic significance of some characters of Polygonum persicaria. Rastit-Resur. Leningrad, "Nauka". 1980. v. 16 (2) p. 232-235.

Lee-HS; Zangerl-AR; Garbutt-K; Bazzaz-FA; Hee-sun-Lee. 1986. Within and between species variation in response to environmental gradients in Polygonum pensylvanicum and Polygonum virginianum. Oecologia. 1986, 68: 4, 606-610; 13 ref.

Sultan,-S.E. 1996. Phenotypic plasticity for offspring traits in Polygonum persicaria. Ecology. Washington, D.C. : Ecological Society of America. Sept 1996. v. 77 (6) p. 1791-1807.

Sultan,-S.E.; Bazzaz,-F.A. 1993. Phenotypic plasticity in Polygonum persicaria. III. The evolution of ecological breadth for nutrient environment. Evolution. Lawrence, Kan. : Society for the Study of Evolution, 1947-. Aug 1993. v. 47 (4) p. 1050-1071.

Sultan,-S.E.; Bazzaz,-F.A. 1993. Phenotypic plasticity in Polygonum persicaria. II. Norms of reaction to soil moisture and the maintenance of genetic diversity. Evolution. Lawrence, Kan. : Society for the Study of Evolution, 1947-. Aug 1993. v. 47 (4) p. 1032-1049.

Sultan,-S.E.; Bazzaz,-F.A. 1993. Phenotypic plasticity in Polygonum persicaria. I. Diversity and uniformity in genotypic norms of reaction to light. Evolution. Lawrence, Kan. : Society for the Study of Evolution, 1947-. Aug 1993. v. 47 (4) p. 1009-1031.

Sultan-SE . 1995. Phenotypic plasticity and plant adaptation. Acta-Botanica-Neerlandica. 1995, 44: 4, 363-383; 4 pp. of ref.

Tikhonova,-V.L.; Makeeva,-I.IU. 1984. Morphological variability and productivity of Polygonum persicaria L. at its introduction in the area around Moscow. Rastit-Resur. Leningrad : "Nauka". 1984. v. 20 (4) p. 510-514.

Vleeshouwers,-L.M. 1997. Modelling the effect of temperature, soil penetration resistance, burial depth and seed weight on pre-emergence growth of weeds. Annals-of-Botany (United Kingdom). (1997). v. 79(5) p. 553-563.

 

3) INTERSPECIFIC INTERACTION

Lee-HS; Zangerl-AR; Garbutt-K; Bazzaz-FA; Hee-sun-Lee. 1986. Within and between species variation in response to environmental gradients in Polygonum pensylvanicum and Polygonum virginianum. Oecologia. 1986, 68: 4, 606-610; 13 ref.

Vleeshouwers-LM. 1997. Modelling weed emergence patterns. 165 pp. Landbouwuniversiteit Wageningen (Wageningen Agricultural University), Wageningen; Netherlands.

 

4) INTRASPECIFIC INTERACTION

+ Competition

Bailey-IJ; Buchanan-GA; Walker-RH; Hoveland-CS . 1980. Phenological development of selected weed species. Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Meeting of the Southern Weed Science Society. 1980, 84.

Bazzaz-FA; Carlson-RW. 1984. The response of plants to elevated CO2. I. Competition among an assemblage of annuals at two levels of soil moisture. Oecologia. 1984, 62: 2, 196-198; 1 fig., 1 tab.; 18 ref.

Bernhardt-KG-von; Forstreuter-V; Bruns-S; Von-Bernhardt-KG. 1991. The influence of cultivation methods and of the seed bank on the composition of the accompanying vegetation of maize and beet fields taking the Osnabruck district as an example. Der Einfluss der Bearbeitungsmethoden und des Samenspeichers auf die Zusammensetzung der Begleitvegetation von Mais- und Rubenackern am Beispeil des Osnabrucker Landes. Bayerisches-Landwirtschaftliches-Jahrbuch. 1991, 68: 2, 211-223; 37 ref.

Berti-A; Zanin-G. 1994. Density equivalent: a method for forecasting yield loss caused by mixed weed populations. Weed-Research-Oxford. 1994, 34: 5, 327-332; 18 ref.

Casquero-PA; Rigueiro-A; Ron-AM-de; Lema-MJ; De-Ron-AM. 1993. Extraction of soil mineral salts by weeds in bean monoculture and intercropping of maize and bean. Extraccion de nutrientes debida a la vegetacion adventicia en monocultivo de judia y en cultivo asociado judia-maiz. Proceedings of the 1993 Congress of the Spanish Weed Science Society, Lugo, Spain, 1-3 December 1993. 1993, 291-294; 9 ref. Sociedad Espanola de Malherbologia (Spanish Weed Science Society); Madrid; Spain

Cid-Benevento-CR; Werner-PA. 1986. Local distributions of old-field and woodland annual plant species: demography, physiological tolerances and allocation of biomass of five species grown in experimental light and soil-moisture gradients. Journal-of-Ecology. 1986, 74: 3, 857-880; 7 fig., 5 tab.; 44 ref.

Coble,-H-D. 1976. Pennsylvania smartweed [Polygonum pensylvanicum] competitionin soybeans [Abstract only] Proc-South-Weed-Sci-Soc, 1976, 29th: 65.

Coble,-H-D; Ritter,-R-L. 1978. Pennsylvania smartweed [Polygonum pensylvanicum] interference in soybeans [Abstract only] Proc-South-Weed-Sci-Soc, 1978, 31: 91.

Coble,-H.D.; Ritter,-R.L. 1978. Pennsylvania smartweed (Polygonum pensylvanicum) interference in soybeans (Glycine max). Weed-Sci. Champaign, Ill., Weed Science Society of America Nov 1978. v. 26 (6) p. 556-559.

Coble-HD; Ritter-RL . 1979. Pennsylvania smartweed (Polygonum pensylvanicum L.) and common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.). Abstracts of 1979 Meeting of the Weed Science Society of America. 1979, 86-87.

Groeneveld-RMW; Lotz-LAP. 1992. Effects of sugar beet cultivars on survival and reproduction of late emerging weeds. Mededelingen-van-de-Faculteit-Landbouwwetenschappen,-Rijsuniversiteit-Gent. 1992, 57: 3b, 1009-1012; 9 ref.

Holmes-RL. 1983. Studies of annual weed competition in seedling and established alfalfa. Dissertation-Abstracts-International,-B. 1983, 44: 1, 31.

Hsu-JK-H . 1980. Weed interference and control for soybean production on alluvial Portageville clay. Dissertation-Abstracts-International,-B. 1980, 41: 5, 1599-1600.

Hsu-JK; Kerr-HD . 1979. Interference among cultivars of soybeans and Pennsylvania smartweed (Polygonum pensylvanicum L.). Abstracts of 1979 Meeting of the Weed Science Society of America. 1979, 39.

Jamriska-P; Surovcik-J. 1997. The effect of weed infestation on alfalfa yield without a cover crop at the first cut. Vplyv zaburinenia na urodu lucerny bez krycej plodiny v prvej kosbe. Rostlinna-Vyroba. 1997, 43: 2, 69-75; 8 ref.

Jordan,-J.L.; Staniforth,-D.W.; Jordan,-C.M. 1982. Parental stress and prechilling effects on Pennsylvania smartweed (Polygonum pensylvanicum) achenes (Weeds, crop competition). Weed-Science (USA). (May 1982). v. 30(3) p. 243-248.

Jordan-JL . 1981. Seed dormancy in pennsylvania smartweed and barnyardgrass. Dissertation-Abstracts-International,-B. 1981, 42: 4, 1256-1257; 97 pp.

Jordan-JL. 1980. The growth habit of Pennsylvania smartweed and velvetleaf. Proceedings North Central Weed Control Conference, 1979. 1980, Vol. 34, 48.

Jordan-JL; Staniforth-DW; Jordan-LS. 1983. Effect of maize (Zea mays L.) competition on weed growth and seed production. Phyton,-Argentina. 1983, 43: 1, 109-115; 23 ref.

Kheddam-M; Clerch-J-le; Caussanel-JP. 1988. Determination of the critical period of weed competition in a maize crop in Brittany. Periode critique de competition des mauvaises herbes dans une culture de mais en Bretagne. VIIIe Colloque International sur la Biologie, l'Ecologie et la Systematique des Mauvaises Herbes. 1988, Vol. 2, 563-572; 4 ref. A.N.P.P.; Paris; France

Krajci-E; Liska-E. 1987. Relationship between weed infestation and yield components of sugarbeet. Vzt'ah medzi intenzitou zaburinenia a prvkami urody cukrovej repy. Rostlinna-Vyroba. 1987, 33: 4, 407-414; 13 ref.

Kropff,-M.J.; Lotz,-L.A.P.; Weaver,-S.E.; Bos,-H.J.; Wallinga,-J.; Migo,-T. 1995. A two parameters model for prediction of crop loss by weed competition from early observation of relative leaf area of the weeds. Ann-appl-biol. Warwick : Association of Applied Biologists. Apr 1995. v. 126 (2) p. 329-346.

Lee-HS; Zangerl-AR; Garbutt-K; Bazzaz-FA; Hee-sun-Lee. 1986. Within and between species variation in response to environmental gradients in Polygonum pensylvanicum and Polygonum virginianum. Oecologia. 1986, 68: 4, 606-610; 13 ref.

Lotz-LAP; Kropff-MJ; Bos-B; Wallinga-J. 1992. Prediction of yield loss based on relative leaf cover of weeds. Proceedings of the 1st International Weed Control Congress. 1992, Vol. 2, 290-292; 3 ref. Weed Science Society of Victoria; Melbourne; Australia

Mallik-MAB; Tesfai-K. 1988. Allelopathic effect of common weeds on soybean growth and soybean-Bradyrhizobium symbiosis. Plant-and-Soil. 1988, 112: 2, 177-182; 17 ref.

McConnaughay,-K.D.M.; Bazzaz,-F.A. 1992. The occupation and fragmentation of space: consequences of neighbouring shoots. Funct-Ecol. Oxford, U.K. : British Ecological Society. 1992. v. 6 (6) p. 711-718.

McConnaughay,-K.D.M.; Bazzaz,-F.A. 1992. The occupation and fragmentation of space: consequences of neighbouring roots. Funct-Ecol. Oxford, U.K. : British Ecological Society. 1992. v. 6 (6) p. 704-710.

Ravn,-A-K. 1969. Benzoic acids and benzonitriles in cereals. [Matricaria inodora, Stellaria media, Polygonum persicaria] Swed-Weed-Conf-[Pap], 1969, 10th: I18-I19.

Sartorato,-I.; Berti,-A.; Zanin,-G. 1996. Estimation of economic thresholds for weed control in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Crop-prot. Kidlington, Oxford, UK : Elsevier Science Ltd. Feb 1996. v. 15 (1) p. 63-68.

Scott,-J.M.; Blair,-G.J. 1987. Competition from Vulpia myuros (L.) C.C. Gmelin in pastures, and its control by coating seeds with herbicides. Australian-Journal-of-Experimental-Agriculture (Australia). (1987). v. 27(3) p. 367-375.

Scott-RK; Moisey-FR; Wilcockson-SJ . 1976. The biology of weeds in relation to control and competition with the sugar-beet crop. 4e Colloque International sur l'Ecologie et la Biologie des Mauvaises Herbes, Marseille, 1973. 1976, 256-273; 7 ref.

Sieberhein-K; Stracke-I. 1988. Weeds in seed corps of serradella (Ornithopus sativus Brot.). Schadpflanzen in Vermehrungskulturen von Serradella (Ornithopus sativus Brot.). Nachrichtenblatt-fur-den-Pflanzenschutz-in-der-DDR. 1988, 42: 7, 141-143; 13 ref.

Staniforth,-R.J.; Cavers,-P.B. 1979. Distribution and habitats of four annual smartweeds [Polygonum lapathifolium, Polygonum pensylvanicum, Polygonum persicaria, Polygonum scabrum] in Ontario. Can-Field-Nat. Ottawa, Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club Oct/Dec 1979. v. 93 (4) p. 378-385.

Surovcik-J. 1991. Weeds and their influence on height and quality of alfalfa crop yield. Vedecke-Prace-Vyskumneho-Ustavu-Rastlinnej-Vyroby-v-Piestanoch,-Obilniny,-Strukoviny,-Krmoviny. 1991, No. 24, 239-250; 9 ref.

Thomas,-S.C.; Bazzaz,-F.A. 1993. The genetic component in plant size hierarchies: norms of reaction to density in a Polygonum species. Ecol-Monogr. Tempe, Ariz. : Ecological Society of America. Aug 1993. v. 63 (3) p. 231-249.

Tremmel,-D.-C; Bazzaz,-F.-A. 1993. How neighbor canopy architecture affects target plant performance. Ecology. v. 74 Oct. '93 p. 2114-24

Tremmel,-D.C.; Bazzaz,-F.A. 1995. Plant architecture and allocation in different neighborhoods: implications for competitive success. Ecology. Washington, D.C. : Ecological Society of America. Jan 1995. v. 76 (1) p. 262-271.

Weiner,-J.; Thomas,-S.C. 1992. Competition and allometry in three species of annual plants. Ecol-Publ-Ecol-Soc-Am. Tempe, Ariz. : The Society. Apr 1992. v. 73 (2) p. 648-656.

Wiese-AM. 1985. Biology, ecology and competitive effects of several annual weeds. Dissertation-Abstracts-International,-B-Sciences-and-Engineering. 1985, 45: 9, 2799B.

Zangerl,-A.R.; Bazzaz,-F.A. 1983. Responses of an early and a late successional species of Polygonum to variations in resource availability Polygonum pensylvanicum, Polygonum virginianum, greenhouse study. Oecologia. 1983. v. 56 (2/3) p. 397-404.

Zaragoza-C; Ochoa-MJ; Gonzalez-Andujar-JL; Sopena-JM; Aibar-J. 1986. Competition between weeds and maize grown in an irrigated field in the Edro Valley (Spain). Proceedings, EWRS symposium on economic weed control. 1986, 161-168; 6 ref. EWRS; 6700 Wageningen; Netherlands

Zwerger-P. 1990. Model trials on the influence of nitrogen fertilization on the seed production and competitiveness of Fallopia convolvulus (L.) A. Love and three Polygonum-species. Modelluntersuchungen zum Einfluss der Stickstoffdungung auf die Samenproduktion und die Schadwirkung von Fallopia convolvulus (L.) A. Love und drei Polygonum-Arten. Zeitschrift-fur-Pflanzenkrankheiten-und-Pflanzenschutz. 1990, Sonderheft 12, 107-113; 20 ref.

 

+ Predator and parasites

Andrews-SW; Krusberg-LR; Golden-AM. 1977. The host range of a Meloidoderita species from Maryland. [16th Ann. Meet., Soc. Nematol., East Lansing, Michigan, 16-19 Aug. 1977. Journal-of-Nematology. 1977, 9: 4, 261-262.

Augustin-B; Sikora-RA. 1989. Studies on host range of the normal and giant faba bean races of Ditylenchus dipsaci. Nematologia-Mediterranea. 1989, 17: 1, 63-66; 17 ref.

Belair,-G.; Benoit,-D.L. 1996. Host suitability of 32 common weeds to Meloidogyne hapla in organic soils of southwestern Quebec. J-nematol. Lakeland, Fla. : Society of Nematologists. Dec 1996. v. 28 (4, suppl.) p. 643-647.

Deml,-G.; Oberwinkler,-F.; Bauer,-R. 1985. Studies in Heterobasidiomycetes. 38. Sphacelotheca polygoni-persicariae G. Deml & Oberw. spec. nov. Phytopathol-Z-J-Phytopathol. Berlin, W. Ger. : Paul Parey. July 1985. v. 113 (3) p. 231-242. ill.

Gleissl-W; Bachthaler-G. 1989. Influence of the physiological properties of weeds on hatching, orientation and penetration by larvae, as well as sex differentiation in Heterodera schachtii Schmidt. Einfluss physiologischer Eigneschaften von Ackerunkrautern auf Larvenschlupf, -orientierung und -eiwanderung sowie die geschlechterdifferenzierung bei Heterodera schachtii Schmidt. Zeitschrift-fur-Pflanzenkrankheiten-und-Pflanzenschutz. 1989, 96: 2, 187-196; 28 ref.

Jager,-G.; Hekman,-W.; Deenen,-A. 1982. The occurrence of Rhizoctonia solani on subterranean parts of wild plants in potato fields. Netherlands-Journal-of-Plant-Pathology (Netherlands). (1982). v. 88(4) p. 155-161.

Jordan-JL. 1980. Ustilago urticulosa: biological control for Pennsylvania smartweed?. Proceedings North Central Weed Control Conference. 1980, Volume 35, 82.

Kirkpatrick,-B.L.; Bazzaz,-F.A. 1979. Influence of certain pathogenic fungi on seed germination and seedling survival of four colonizing annuals Abutilon theophrasti, Datura stramonium, Ipomoea hederacea, and Polygonum pensylvanicum. J-Appl-Ecol. Oxford, Blackwell Scientific Publications. Aug 1979. v. 16 (2) p. 515-527.

Kirkpatrick-BL; Bazzaz-FA . 1978. Influence of fungi on the population dynamics of weeds. Abstracts 1978 Meeting Weed Science Society of America. 1978, 60.

Lamp-WO; Morris-MJ; Armbrust-EJ. 1984. Suitability of common weed species as host plants for the potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae. Entomologia-Experimentalis-et-Applicata. 1984, 36: 2, 125-131; 1 fig.; 14 ref.

Mabry,-C.-M; Jasienski,-M; Coleman,-J.-S. 1997. Genotypic variation in Polygonum pensylvanicum: nutrient effects on plant growth and aphid infestation . Canadian-Journal-of-Botany. v. 75 Apr. '97 p. 546-51

MacGowan-JB. 1983. The cyst nematodes of knotweed and nutgrass. Nematology-Circular,-Division-of-Plant-Industry,-Florida-Department-of-Agriculture-and-Consumer-Services. 1983, 100: 2pp.; 9 ref.

MacLean-DB; MacLean-BK. 1990. Lycaena hyllus (Cramer) (Lycaenidae): new host and mating behavior in a drought-induced population explosion. Journal-of-the-Lepidopterists'-Society. 1990, 44: 1, 33-34.

Manley-DG. 1985. Managing the Japanese beetle on tobacco in South Carolina. Journal-of-Agricultural-Entomology. 1985, 2: 4, 398-399.

Miyazaki-M; Naito-A; Wapshere-AJ (ed.). 1974. Studies on the host specificity of Gastrophysa atrocyanea Mot. (Col.:Chrysomelidae), a potential biological control agent against Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae) in Japan. Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds, September 1973. Miscellaneous-Publication,-Commonwealth-Institute-of-Biological-Control. 1974, No. 8, 97-107; 3 fig.; 2 ref.

Naito-A; Miyazaki-M; Emura-K. 1979. Studies on the biological control of Rumex obtusifolius L. a grassland weed by Gastrophysa atrocyanea Mots. (Chrysomelidae, Coleoptera) 1. On the host specificity of the insect. Bulletin-of-the-National-Grassland-Research-Institute,-Japan. 1979, No. 14, 117-123; 9 ref.

Paskewitz-SM; McPherson-JE. 1983. Life history and laboratory rearing of Arhyssus lateralis (Hemiptera: Rhopalidae) with descriptions of immature stages. Annals-of-the-Entomological-Society-of-America. 1983, 76: 3, 477-482; 2 fig.; 8 ref.

Petrie,-Mark-J; Drobney,-Ronald-D; Graber,-David-A. 1997. Evaluation of true metabolizable energy for waterfowl. The-Journal-of-Wildlife-Management. v. 61 Apr. '97 p. 420-5

Puttler-B; Thewke-SE; Warner-RE. 1973. Bionomics of three Nearctic species, one new, of Hypera (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and their parasites. Annals-of-the-Entomological-Society-of-America. 1973, 66: 6, 1299-1306; 22 fig.; 17 ref.

 

+ Other intraspecific interactions

Barczak-T. 1994. Effect of Polygonaceae plant extracts on black bean aphid (Aphis fabae) and its parasitoids. Wplyw wyciagow z roslin z rodziny rdestowatych na mszyce burakowa (Aphis fabae) i jej parazytoidy. Zeszyty-Problemowe-Postepow-Nauk-Rolniczych. 1994, 414: 245-252; 12 ref.

Boetel-MA; Walgenbach-DD; Hein-GL; Fuller-BW; Gray-ME. 1992. Oviposition site selection of the northern corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Journal-of-Economic-Entomology. 1992, 85: 1, 246-249; 17 ref.

Dabbert-CB; Powell-KC; Martin-TE. 1996. Effects of monotypic diets of soybean, rice, and corn on mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) physiological status. Journal-of-Zoo-and-Wildlife-Medicine. 1996, 27: 2, 248-254; 43 ref.

Jordan-JL. 1980. Ustilago urticulosa: biological control for Pennsylvania smartweed?. Proceedings North Central Weed Control Conference. 1980, Volume 35, 82.

Kremer-RJ. 1987. Identity and properties of bacteria inhabiting seeds of selected broadleaf weed species. Microbial-Ecology. 1987, 14: 1, 29-37; 23 ref.

Mabry-CM; Jasienski-M; Coleman-JS; Bazzaz-FA. 1997. Genotypic variation in Polygonum pensylvanicum: nutrient effects on plant growth and aphid infestation. Canadian-Journal-of-Botany. 1997, 75: 4, 546-551; 48 ref.

Mallik-MAB; Tesfai-K. 1987. Stimulation of Bradyrhizobium japonicum by allelochemicals from green plants. Plant-and-Soil. 1987, 103: 2, 227-231; 2 fig., 2 tab.; 19 ref.

Manley,-D.G. 1985. Managing the Japanese beetle on tobacco in South Carolina. J-Agric-Entomol. Clemson, S.C. : South Carolina Entomological Society. Oct 1985. v. 2 (4) p. 398-399.

Research-perspectives (USA). Changing the plant: another approach to insect control. (Aut 1985). v. 4(3) p. 6. 1985

Sas-Piotrowska-B; Piotrowski-W; Misiak-M. 1996. The growth and development of potato pathogens on media with extracts from Polygonaceae plants. I. Pathogens causing dry leaf-spot disease. Phytopathologia-Polonica. 1996, No. 11, 103-109; 12 ref.

Schokker-AH. 1988. Survival of weed seeds and tubers in cattle manure and maize silage. De overleving van onkruidzaden en -knolletjes in rundermengmest en in een snijmaiskuil. Verslagen,-Centrum-voor-Agrobiologisch-Onderzoek,-Wageningen. 1988, No. 90, 34 pp.; 40 ref.

Schweizer-C. 1992. Influence of weeds on spider mites in hop gardens. Einfluss von Unkraut auf Spinnmilben in Hopfenkulturen. Landwirtschaft-Schweiz. 1992, 5: 11-12, 597-599.

Temme-DG; Harvey-RG; Fawcett-RS. 1976. Influence of weeds on forage quality. Proceedings North Central Weed Control Conference, 1976. 1976, Vol.31, 39.

 

5) REPRODUCTION

+ Flowering, pollen and embryonic development

Deml-G; Oberwinkler-F; Bauer-R. 1985. Studies in heterobasidiomycetes, part 38. Sphacelotheca polygoni-persicariae G. Deml & Oberw. spec. nov. Phytopathologische-Zeitschrift. 1985, 113: 3, 231-242; 18 fig., 3 tab. See RPP 63, 2195; 20 ref.

Jordan-JL. 1980. Ustilago urticulosa: biological control for Pennsylvania smartweed?. Proceedings North Central Weed Control Conference. 1980, Volume 35, 82.

Kubetin,-W.R.; Schaal,-B.A. 1981. Genetic variability and reproductive effort in Polygonum pensylvanicum. Biochem-Syst-Ecol. Oxford, Pergamon. 1981. v. 9 (1) p. 19-21.

Mulcahy,-D.L.; Mulcahy,-G.B.; Searcy,-K.B. Wyatt,-R. (ed.). 1992. Evolutionary genetics of pollen competition. Ecology and evolution of plant reproduction. New York (USA). Chapman and Hall. 1992. p. 25-36.

Nakatani-K; Kusanagi-T. 1991. Effect of photoperiod and temperature on growth characteristics, especially heading or flower bud appearance of upland weeds. Weed-Research-Tokyo. 1991, 36: 1, 74-81; 23 ref.

Neubauer,-B-F. 1971. The development of the achene of Polygonum pensylvanicum: embryo, endosperm, and pericarp Amer-J-Bot, Aug 1971, 58 (1): 655-664.

San-Martin,-J.; Contreras,-D.; Ramirez,-C. 1988. [Phenological studies on rice weeds in Central Chile]. Estudios fenologicos en malezas de arrozales cultivados en Chile Central. Turrialba (IICA). (Jan-Mar 1988). v. 38(1) p. 23-30.

Vysochina-GI; Kul'-pina-TG; Berezovskaya-TP. 1987. Flavonoid content in some species of Polygonum L. section Persicaria (Mill.) D.C. of the Siberian flora. Rastitel'nye-Resursy. 1987, 23: 2, 229-234; 14 ref. 1987

Young,-H.J.; Young,-T.P. 1992. Alternative outcomes of natural and experimental high pollen loads. Ecol-Publ-Ecol-Soc-Am. Tempe, Ariz. : The Society. Apr 1992. v. 73 (2) p. 639-647.

 

+ Genetic variation

Consaul-LL; Warwick-SI; McNeill-J. 1991. Allozyme variation in the Polygonum lapathifolium complex. Canadian-Journal-of-Botany. 1991, 69: 10, 2261-2270; 49 ref.

Kubetin-WR; Schaal-BA . 1979. Apportionment of isozyme variability in Polygonum pensylvanicum (Polygonaceae). Systematic-Botany. 1979, 4: 2, 148-156; 19 ref.

Kubetin-WR; Schaal-BA. 1981. Genetic variability and reproductive effort in Polygonum pensylvanicum. Biochemical-Systematics-and-Ecology. 1981, 9: 1, 19-21; 10 ref.

Mabry-CM; Jasienski-M; Coleman-JS; Bazzaz-FA. 1997. Genotypic variation in Polygonum pensylvanicum: nutrient effects on plant growth and aphid infestation. Canadian-Journal-of-Botany. 1997, 75: 4, 546-551; 48 ref.

Mulcahy,-D.L.; Mulcahy,-G.B.; Searcy,-K.B. Wyatt,-R. (ed.). 1992. Evolutionary genetics of pollen competition. Ecology and evolution of plant reproduction. New York (USA). Chapman and Hall. 1992. p. 25-36.

Sultan,-S.E.; Bazzaz,-F.A. 1993. Phenotypic plasticity in Polygonum persicaria. II. Norms of reaction to soil moisture and the maintenance of genetic diversity. Evolution. Lawrence, Kan. : Society for the Study of Evolution, 1947-. Aug 1993. v. 47 (4) p. 1032-1049.

Sultan,-S.E.; Bazzaz,-F.A. 1993. Phenotypic plasticity in Polygonum persicaria. I. Diversity and uniformity in genotypic norms of reaction to light. Evolution. Lawrence, Kan. : Society for the Study of Evolution, 1947-. Aug 1993. v. 47 (4) p. 1009-1031.

 

6) HABITAT

Alban,-D.H.; Perala,-D.A.; Jurgensen,-M.F.; Ostry,-M.E.; Probst,-J.R. 1991. Aspen ecosystem properties in the upper Great Lakes. 1991. 47 p.

Andreasen-C; Stryhn-H; Streibig-JC . 1996. Decline of the flora in Danish arable fields. Journal-of-Applied-Ecology. 1996, 33: 3, 619-626; 44 ref.

Brown-JE; Maddox-JB; Splittstoesser-WE. 1983. Performance of trees, shrubs, and forbs seeded directly in the fall on minespoil and silt loam soil. Journal-of-Environmental-Quality. 1983, 12: 4, 523-525; 2 tab.; 9 ref.

Buhler-DD. 1997. Effects of tillage and light environment on emergence of 13 annual weeds. Weed-Technology. 1997, 11: 3, 496-501.

Cid-Benevento-CR. 1985. Factors affecting the distribution of old field and woodland annual plants: physiological tolerance vs. life history. Dissertation-Abstracts-International,-B-Sciences-and-Engineering. 1985, 46: 2, 404B-405B.

Cid-Benevento-CR; Werner-PA. 1986. Local distributions of old-field and woodland annual plant species: demography, physiological tolerances and allocation of biomass of five species grown in experimental light and soil-moisture gradients. Journal-of-Ecology. 1986, 74: 3, 857-880; 7 fig., 5 tab.; 44 ref.

Czech,-B. 1981. Morphological and ecological properties of Polygonum persicaria L. and Polygonum tomentosum Schrk. in cereal crops and root-crops. Wlasciwosci morfologiczne i ekologiczne Polygonum persicaria L. i Polygonum tomentosum Schrk. w uprawach zbozowych i okopowych. Pr-Bot. Warszawa : Panstwowe Wydawn. Naukowe. 1981. (8) p. 145-171. ill.

Doyon-D; Bouchard-CJ. 1981. Survey of weeds in fields of maize in the county of St-Hyacinthe, Quebec. Inventaire des mauvaises herbes dans les champs de mais-grain du comte de Saint-Hyacinthe, Quebec. Phytoprotection. 1981, 62: 1, 1-10; 18 ref.

Fenner-M . 1978. A comparison of the abilities of colonizers and closed-turf species to establish from seed in artificial swards. Journal-of-Ecology. 1978, 66: 3, 953-963; 21 ref.

Fijalkowski-D; Taranowska-B; Sawa-K. 1990. Changes in weed infestation of cultivated fields on podzolic and brown soils, rendzinas and chernozems. Zmiany w zachwaszczeniu pol uprawnych na glebach bielicowych, brunatnych, redzinach i czarnoziemach. Annales-Universitatis-Mariae-Curie -Sklodowska.-Sectio-C,-Biologia. 1990, 43: 261-274; 10 ref.

Kim-YoungJin; Park-GeunJe; Choi-SeonSik; Hwang-SukJoong; Yook-WanBang; Kim-YJ; Park-GJ; Choi-SS; Hwang-SJ; Yook-WB. 1995. Ecological studies on weeds in cultivated pasture. II. Effects of pasture management and utilization characteristics of weed development. RDA-Journal-of-Agricultural-Science,-Livestock. 1995, 37: 2, 564-572; 23 ref.

Mabry-CM; Jasienski-M; Coleman-JS; Bazzaz-FA. 1997. Genotypic variation in Polygonum pensylvanicum: nutrient effects on plant growth and aphid infestation. Canadian-Journal-of-Botany. 1997, 75: 4, 546-551; 48 ref.

MacNaeidhe-FS; Curran-PL . 1980. Weed ecology of agricultural peatland. Research-Report,-Faculty-of-General-Agriculture,-University-College-Dublin,-1978-1979. 1980, 185 pp.

Matthews,-L-J. Willow weed. [Polygonum persicaria]. N-Z-J-Agr, May 1971, 122 (5): 55, 57.

Pickett,-S-T-A; Bazzaz,-F-A. 1976. Divergence of two co-occurring successional annuals [Polygonum pensylvanicum and Abutilon theophrasti] on a soil moisture gradient. Ecology, 57 (1): 169-176.

Pickett-STA; Bazzaz-FA . 1978. Organization of an assemblage of early successional species on a soil moisture gradient. Ecology. 1978, 59: 6, 1248-1255; 51 ref.

Rahman-A; Sanders-P; Nichols-M (ed.); Swain-D. 1996. Succession of weed flora in some New Zealand asparagus crops. Proceedings of the VIII International asparagus symposium, Palmerston North, New Zealand, 21-26 Nov. 1993. Acta-Horticulturae. 1996, No. 415, 279-284; 16 ref.

Schans-DA-van-der; Van-der-Schans-DA . 1996. The effect of soil pH on the yield of lucerne. Het effect van bodem-pH op de opbrengst van luzerne. Publicatie -Proefstation-voor-de-Akkerbouw-en-de-Groenteteelt-in-de-Vollegrond,-Lelystad. 1996, No. 81A, 174-176.

Staniforth,-R.J.; Cavers,-P.B. 1979. Distribution and habitats of four annual smartweeds [Polygonum lapathifolium, Polygonum pensylvanicum, Polygonum persicaria, Polygonum scabrum] in Ontario. Can-Field-Nat. Ottawa, Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club Oct/Dec 1979. v. 93 (4) p. 378-385. ill., maps.

Sultan,-S.E.; Bazzaz,-F.A. 1993. Phenotypic plasticity in Polygonum persicaria. II. Norms of reaction to soil moisture and the maintenance of genetic diversity. Evolution (USA). (Aug 1993). v. 47(4) p. 1032-1049.

Sultan,-S.E.; Bazzaz,-F.A. 1993. Phenotypic plasticity in Polygonum persicaria. I. Diversity and uniformity in genotypic norms of reaction to light. Evolution (USA). (Aug 1993). v. 47(4) p. 1009-1031.

Sultan,-S.E.; Bazzaz,-F.A. 1993. Phenotypic plasticity in Polygonum persicaria. III. The evolution of ecological breadth for nutrient environment. Evolution. Lawrence, Kan. : Society for the Study of Evolution, 1947-. Aug 1993. v. 47 (4) p. 1050-1071.

Tikhonova-VL. 1979. Characteristics of Polygonum persicaria sowing material. Byulleten'-Glavnogo-Botanicheskogo-Sada. 1979, No.114, 78-83; 7 ref.

Wiese-AM. 1985. Biology, ecology and competitive effects of several annual weeds. Dissertation-Abstracts-International,-B-Sciences-and-Engineering. 1985, 45: 9, 2799B.

Wrucke-MA; Arnold-WE. 1982. The long-term influence of reduced tillage on weed and soil factors. Proceedings, North Central Weed Control Conference. 1982, 50-51.

Zaragoza-L-C-Maillet-J. 1980. Study of the weed vegetation in the province of Saragossa (Spain). Etude de la vegetation adventice de la province de Zaragoza (Espagne). Proceedings of the 6th International Colloquium on Weed Ecology, Biology and Systematics, organized by COLUMA-EWRS, Montpellier, 1980. 1980, Volume I, 233-240; 7 ref.

 

7) MANAGEMENT

+ Chemical control

Abud-JK. 1985. Evaluation of the semi-direct (minimum cultivation) system of sowing for controlling red rice in irrigated rice. Avaliacao do sistema de semeadura semi-direta (cultivo minimo) no controle do arroz vermelho em arroz irrigado.

Aigle-N; Barralis-G; Gasquez-J. 1980. Some data on the distribution of chloroplast resistance in France. Quelques donnees sur la repartition de la resistance chloroplastique en France. Proceedings of the 6th International Colloquium on Weed Ecology, Biology and Systematics, organized by COLUMA-EWRS, Montpellier, 1980. 1980, Volume II, 367-377; 12 ref.

Al-Khatib,-K.; Kadir,-S.; Libbey,-C. 1995. Broadleaf weed control with clomazone in pickling cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Weed-technology-:-a-journal-of-the-Weed-Science-Society-of-America (USA). (Jan-Mar 1995). v. 9(1) p. 166-172.

Alfnes-AT. 1976. Weed control in newly planted strawberries. Ugrasbekjempelse i nyplanta jordbeer. [Review of Weed Research 1975. 4th Conference on Plant Protection] Synspunkter omkring Ugrasforsoekene 1975. 4 Informasjonsmoete i Plantevern. 1976, 92-95.

Ashley-RA . 1972. Evaluation of several herbicides and herbicide combinations for weed control and crop injury in transplanted cabbage. Proceedings of the Northeastern Weed Science Society, New York. 1972, Volume 26, 133-136.

Barralis-G. 1982. The weed flora of crops and its evolution. La flore adventice des cultures et son evolution. Bulletin-Technique-d'Information. 1982, No.370-372, 463-466.

Barralis-G; Chadoeuf-R. 1977. Qualitative and quantitative evolution of a weed population after 10 years of treatments. Evolution qualitative et quantitative d'un peuplement adventice sous l'effet de 10 annees de traitement. Comptes Rendus du Ve Colloque International sur l'Ecologie et la Biologie des Mauvaises Herbes, Dijon, 1976. 1977 , 179-186; 5 ref.

Barralis-G; Gasquez-J; Jan-P; Soffietti-S . 1979. Physiological and ecological behaviour of broad-leaved weeds resistant to atrazine in France. Comportement ecologique et biologique des dicotyledones resistantes a l'atrazine en France. Proceedings EWRS Symposium on the Influence of Different Factors on the Development and Control of Weeds, Mainz, 1979. 1979, 217-224; 7 ref.

Bastian-O. 1987. Vegetation changes in intensively managed orchards - a case study in the Dresden district. Vegetationswandel durch Intensivobstbau - eine Fallstudie im Bezirk Dresden. Hercynia. 1987, 24: 4, 395-403; 7 ref.

Bayer,-David-Edmon. 1958. Some factors affecting the germination of seeds and plant responses to herbicides of three species of smartweed Polygonum pensylvanicum L., Polygonum persicaria L., and Polygonum lapathifolium L. 131 leaves.

Behrens-R . 1973. Influence of pre- and post-treatment relative humidity on the phytotoxicity of 2,4-D. Proceedings of the North Central Weed Control Conference. 1973, Volume 28, 65-66.

Bellinder-RR; Wilson-HP. 1983. Comparison of several non-selective herbicides in reduced tillage systems. Proceedings of the 37th annual meeting of the Northeastern Weed Science Society, 1983. 1983, 20-26.

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Worthy-LM. 1985. Command - broadleaf weed control for at-plant use in soybeans. Proceedings, Southern Weed Science Society, 38th annual meeting. 1985, 76.

Yih-RY . 1979. Blazer - a new postemergence herbicide for weed control in soybeans. Abstracts of Papers, IX International Congress of Plant Protection and 71st Annual Meeting of the American Phytopathological Society. 1979, 484.

Zandstra,-B.H.; Wallace,-T.F.-Jr. 1989. Postemergence weed control in onions (Allium cepa) with air-assisted, flat fan, rotary nozzles. Weed-Technol-J-Weed-Sci-Soc-Am. Champaign, Ill. : The Society. July/Sept 1989. v. 3 (3) 467-471.

Zandstra-BH. 1985. Low-volume application of fluazifop and oxyfluorfen with flat fan, air assisted and rotary nozzles for postemergence weed control in onions. Proceedings, North Central Weed Control Conference. 1985, Vol.40, 42. St. Louis, Missouri; USA

Zanin-G . 1979. A three year experiment on weed control of soyabean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Un triennio di sperimentazione sul diserbo chimico della soia (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Rivista-di-Agronomia. 1979, 13: 1, 169-180; 35 ref. Italian

Zawierucha-JE; Watters-H. 1986. Postemergent weed control in sugar beets. Proceedings, 40th annual meeting of the Northeastern Weed Science Society. 1986, 24.

Zuza-VS . 1973. The effect of s-triazines and 2,4-D on the potential weed seed bank of the soil. Khimiya-v-Sel'skom-Khozyaistve. 1973, 11: 6, 449-451; 23 ref.

 

+ Non-chemical

Ateh,-C.M.; Doll,-J.D. 1996. Spring-planted winter rye (Secale cereale) as a living mulch to control weeds in soybean (Glycine max). Weed-technol. Lawrence, Kans. : The Weed Science Society of America. Apr/June 1996. v. 10 (2) p. 347-353.

Braun-M; Koch-W; Mussa-HH; Stiefvater-M. 1988. Solarization for weed and pest control - possibilities and limitations Weed control in vegetable production. Proceedings of a meeting of the EC Experts' Group, Stuttgart 28-31 Oct. 1986. 1988, 169-178; 23 ref. A.A. Balkema; Rotterdam; Netherlands

Braun-M; Koch-W; Stiefvater-M. 1987. Solarization for soil sanitation - possibilities and limitations. Demonstrated in trials in southern Germany and the Sudan. Solarisation zur Bodensanierung - Moglichkeiten und Grenzen. Dargestellt an Versuchen in Sudbaden und im Sudan. Gesunde-Pflanzen. 1987, 39: 7, 301-309; 22 ref.

Buhler-DD. 1997. Effects of tillage and light environment on emergence of 13 annual weeds. Weed-Technology. 1997, 11: 3, 496-501.

Burnside-OC . 1978. Mechanical, cultural and chemical control of weeds in a sorghum-soybean (Sorghum bicolor)-(Glycine max) rotation. Weed-Science. 1978, 26: 4, 362-369; 12 ref.

Burnside-OC; Moomaw-RS. 1977. Control of weeds in narrow-row soybeans. Agronomy-Journal. 1977, 69: 5, 793-796; 9 ref.

Cantele,-A.; Zanin,-G. 1983. Weed control in corn (Zea mays L.) grown on organic soils: recent experimental results in Veneto [Polygonum persicaria, Italy]. Lotta alle malerbe del mais (Zea mays L.) nei terreni umiferi: ultimi risultati sperimentali ottenuti nel Veneto. Riv-Agron. Bologna : Edagricole. Jan/Mar 1983. v. 17 (1) p. 16-26. maps.

DeFrank-J; Putnam-AR. 1979. Efficacy of rotational crop residue for weed control. Abstracts of 1979 Meeting of the Weed Science Society of America. 1979, 84-85.

Deml-G; Oberwinkler-F; Bauer-R. 1985. Studies in heterobasidiomycetes, part 38. Sphacelotheca polygoni-persicariae G. Deml & Oberw. spec. nov. Phytopathologische-Zeitschrift. 1985, 113: 3, 231-242; 18 fig., 3 tab. See RPP 63, 2195; 20 ref.

Hartzler-RG; Kooten-BD-van; Stoltenberg-DE; Hall-EM; Fawcett-RS; Van-Kooten-BD. 1993. On-farm evaluation of mechanical and chemical weed management practices in corn (Zea mays). Weed-Technology. 1993, 7: 4, 1001-1004; 13 ref.

Henne-RC; Poulson-TL . 1980. Integrated weed control programs for carrots and tomatoes. Proceedings of the Northeastern Weed Science Society, 1980. 1980, Vol. 34, 161-166; 3 ref.

Hernando,-J.; Portillo,-R.; Garcia-Orbegozo,-E.; Fuertes,-T . 1987. Weed survey and control studies on lentil in central Spain [Lens culinaris]. LENS-Newsletter (ICARDA). Lentil Experimental News Service. (1987). v. 14(1/2) p. 12-15.

Jordan-JL. 1980. Ustilago urticulosa: biological control for Pennsylvania smartweed?. Proceedings North Central Weed Control Conference. 1980, Volume 35, 82.

Laursen-F; Haas-H . 1971. Factors of importance in the occurrence of weed species in Danish Crops. 1. Life span. Meddelelse,-Afdelingen-for-Landbrugets-Plantekultur,-Kongelige-Veterinaer--og-Landbohoejskole. 1971, No.152, 29-31; 4 ref.

Macchia-M; Cozzani-A; Bonari-E. 1996. Effects of soil tillage on weed seed bank structure and dynamics in a biennial winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-soyabean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) rotation. Effetto della lavorazione principale sulla struttura e la dinamica della `seed bank' in un avvicendamento frumento tenero (Triticum aestivum L.)-soia (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Rivista-di-Agronomia. 1996, 30: 2, 136-141; 23 ref.

MacNaeidhe-FS; Curran-PL . 1980. Weed ecology of agricultural peatland. Research-Report,-Faculty-of-General-Agriculture,-University-College-Dublin,-1978-1979. 1980, 185 pp.

Manley-DG. 1985. Managing the Japanese beetle on tobacco in South Carolina. Journal-of-Agricultural-Entomology. 1985, 2: 4, 398-399.

Wrucke-MA; Arnold-WE . 1981. The effect of ten years of reduced tillage on weed species and soybean yield. Proceedings North Central Weed Control Conference, 1981. 1981, Volume 36, 20-21.

 

8) USAGE AND/OR PROPERTIES

Bailey-JI; Hoveland-CS; Buchanan-GA . 1980. Nutritive value of 22 weed species for forage. Agronomy Abstracts. 72nd annual meeting, American Society of Agronomy. 1980, 122.

Dabbert-CB; Powell-KC; Martin-TE. 1996. Effects of monotypic diets of soybean, rice, and corn on mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) physiological status. Journal-of-Zoo-and-Wildlife-Medicine. 1996, 27: 2, 248-254; 43 ref.

Hoveland-CS; Buchanan-GA; Bosworth-SC; Bailey-IJ. 1986. Forage nutritive quality of weeds in Alabama. Bulletin,-Alabama-Agricultural-Experiment-Station,-Auburn-University. 1986, No.577, 19 pp.; 9 ref.

Koz'-yakov-OS; Osetrova-OI; Zil'-IP. 1991. Medicinal species of the genus Polygonum L. in the Ukraine. Ukrains'kii-Botanichnii-Zhurnal. 1991, 48: 2, 42-45; 12 ref.

Marten-GC; Andersen-RN . 1975. Forage nutritive value and palatability of 12 common annual weeds. Crop-Science. 1975, 15: 6, 821-827; 22 ref.

Marten-GC; Wyse-DL; Sheaffer-CC . 1983. Nutritive value and palatability of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass compared to common perennial invaders. Use home grown forages for profit and conservation. Proceedings of the 1983 Forage and Grassland Conference, Civic Center, Eau Claire, Wisconsin, January 23-26, 1983. 1983, 170-172.

Nicholson-KS; Wardle-DA; Popay-AJ. 1994. Decomposition of weed tissues in a pasture and a maize crop: implications for nutrient cycling. Proceedings of the forty seventh New Zealand plant protection conference, Waitangi, New Zealand, 9-11 August 1994. 1994, 29-33; 12 ref. New Zealand Plant Protection Society; Rotorua; New Zealand

Perseca-T; Dordea-M; Pop-I; Darie-B. 1976. Investigation of the amino-acid content in relation to species of the genus Polygonum. Cercetari asupra continutului de aminoacizi in raport de specie la genul Polygonum. Contributii-Botanice,-Universitatea-Babes-Bolyai-din-Cluj-Napoca. 1976, 199-204; 12 ref.

Smolarz-HD. 1994. Tannins in some species of Polygonum L. genus. Garbniki w niektorych gatunkach rodzaju Polygonum L. Annales-Universitatis-Mariae-Curie-Sklodowska.-Sectio-DDD,-Pharmacia. 1994, 6-7: 1993-1994, 101-105; 19 ref.

Temme-DG; Harvey-RG; Fawcett-RS. 1976. Influence of weeds on forage quality. Proceedings North Central Weed Control Conference, 1976. 1976, Vol.31, 39.

Temme-DG; Harvey-RG; Fawcett-RS; Young-AW . 1979. Effects of annual weed control on alfalfa forage quality. Agronomy-Journal. 1979, 71: 1, 51-54; 14 ref.

 

9) GENETIC STUDIES

Consaul,-L.L.; Warwick,-S.I.; McNeill,-J. 1991. Allozyme variation in the Polygonum lapathifolium complex. Can-J-Bot-J-Can-Bot. Ottawa, Ont. : National Research Council of Canada. Oct 1991. v. 69 (10) p. 2261-2270.

Dekker,-J.; Burmester,-R.; Wendel,-J. 1991. Mutant weeds of Iowa: S-triazine resistant Pennsylvania smartweed (Polygonum pensylvanicum). Weed-technology-:-a-journal-of-the-Weed-Science-Society-of-America (USA). (Jan-Mar 1991). v. 5(1) p. 211-213.

Kubetin-WR; Schaal-BA . 1979. Apportionment of isozyme variability in Polygonum pensylvanicum (Polygonaceae). Systematic-Botany. 1979, 4: 2, 148-156; 19 ref.

Kubetin-WR; Schaal-BA. 1981. Genetic variability and reproductive effort in Polygonum pensylvanicum. Biochemical-Systematics-and-Ecology. 1981, 9: 1, 19-21; 10 ref.

Mabry,-C.-M; Jasienski,-M; Coleman,-J.-S. 1997. Genotypic variation in Polygonum pensylvanicum: nutrient effects on plant growth and aphid infestation . Canadian-Journal-of-Botany. v. 75 Apr. '97 p. 546-51

Mulcahy,-D.L.; Mulcahy,-G.B.; Searcy,-K.B. Wyatt,-R. (ed.). 1992. Evolutionary genetics of pollen competition. Ecology and evolution of plant reproduction. New York (USA). Chapman and Hall. 1992. p. 25-36.

Sultan,-S.E.; Bazzaz,-F.A. 1993. Phenotypic plasticity in Polygonum persicaria. II. Norms of reaction to soil moisture and the maintenance of genetic diversity. Evolution. Lawrence, Kan. : Society for the Study of Evolution, 1947-. Aug 1993. v. 47 (4) p. 1032-1049.

Sultan,-S.E.; Bazzaz,-F.A. 1993. Phenotypic plasticity in Polygonum persicaria. I. Diversity and uniformity in genotypic norms of reaction to light. Evolution (USA). (Aug 1993). v. 47(4) p. 1009-1031.

Sultan-SE . 1996. Phenotypic plasticity for offspring traits in Polygonum persicaria. Ecology. 1996, 77: 6, 1791-1807; 96 ref.

Thomas,-S.C.; Bazzaz,-F.A. 1993. The genetic component in plant size hierarchies: norms of reaction to density in a Polygonum species. Ecol-Monogr. Tempe, Ariz. : Ecological Society of America. Aug 1993. v. 63 (3) p. 231-249.

Yasui-Y; Ohnishi-O. 1996. Comparative study of rbcL gene sequences in Fagopyrum and related taxa. Genes-and-Genetic-Systems. 1996, 71: 4, 219-224; 30 ref.

 

10) OTHER TOPICS

Duer-I. 1986. Chemical composition of weeds and nutrient uptake by weeds and cereals in rotations with different percentage of cereal crops. Sklad chemiczny chwastow oraz pobranie skladnikow mineralnych przez chwasty i zboza w zmianowaniach z roznym udzialem zboz.

Ekman-S; Knutsson-T. 1994. Nomenclatural notes on Persicaria. Nordic-Journal-of-Botany. 1994, 14: 1, 23-25; 18 ref.

Farnsworth-EJ; Bazzaz-FA. 1995. Inter- and intra-generic differences in growth, reproduction, and fitness of nine herbaceous annual species grown in elevated CO2 environments. Oecologia. 1995, 104: 4, 454-466; 51 ref.

Freyman-S; Kowalenko-CG; Hall-JW. 1989. Effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on weed emergence and subsequent weed communities in south coastal British Columbia. Canadian-Journal-of-Plant-Science. 1989, 69: 2, 1001-1010; 15 ref.

Hagendoorn,-M.J.M.; Geelen,-T.A.M.; Beek,-T.A.-van; Jamar,-D.C.L.; Tetteroo,-F.A.A.; Plas,-L.H.W. 1994r. Occurrence of polygodial in plant organs and tissue culture of Polygonum hydropiper [Polygonum persicaria, secondary metabolites, tepals, cavities, sesquiterpene dialdehyde, accumulation]..-van-der Physiologia-Plantarum (Denmark). (Dec 1994). v. 92(4) p. 595-600.

Hickman,-J.C. 1984. Nomenclatural changes in Persicaria, Polygonum, and Rumex (Polygonaceae) [New taxa]. Madrono. Berkeley, Calif. : California Botanical Society. Oct 1984. v. 31 (4) p. 249-252.

Kerpen,-W.; Schmidt,-R.R. 1982. Different behaviour of biotest plants [Polygonum persicaria, Galinsoga parviflora] in various soils [in France; in Germany, F.R.; after application of metamitron herbicide]. Unterschiedliches Verhalten von Biotestpflanzen auf Metamitron in verschiedenen Boeden. 34. International Symposium on Crop Protection. Gent (Belgium). 4 May 1982. Internationaal-Symposium-over-Fytofarmacie-en-Fytiatrie (Belgium). Rijksuniversiteit Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Gent. (1982). v. 34(pt.1) p. 73-83.

Krylova,-I.L.; Pogorelova,-O.V.; Tikhonova,-V.L. 1980. Diagnostic significance of some characters of Polygonum persicaria. Rastit-Resur. Leningrad, "Nauka". 1980. v. 16 (2) p. 232-235.

Loux-MM; Berry-MA. 1991. Use of a grower survey for estimating weed problems. Weed-Technology. 1991, 5: 2, 460-466; 11 ref.

Makhkamova,-K-F; Bandyukova,-V-A; Khalmatov,-K-K. 1970. A study of the polyphenolic compounds of Polgonum amphibium and Polygonum scabrum Chem-Natur-Compounds, Sept/Oct 1970 Transl. 1973, 6 (5): 672.

Matthews,-L-J. Willow weed. [Polygonum persicaria]. N-Z-J-Agr, May 1971, 122 (5): 55, 57.

Meyer-GE; Bargen-K-von; Woebbecke-DM; Mortensen-DA; Von-Bargen-K. 1994. Shape features for identifying young weeds using image analysis. Paper -American-Society-of-Agricultural-Engineers. 1994, No. 94-3019, 27 pp.; International summer meeting of ASAE, Kansas City, Missouri, USA, 19-22 June 1994; 20 ref.

Middleton-BA. 1994. Decomposition and litter production in a northern bald cypress swamp. Journal-of-Vegetation-Science. 1994, 5: 2, 271-274; 25 ref.

Mukhamed'yarova,-M-M. 1968. Flavonoids of Polygonum persicaria. Chem-Natur-Compounds, Mar/Apr 1968, 4 (2): 112-113.

Ouren-T. 1987. Soyabean adventitious weeds in Norway. Blyttia. 1987, 45: 4, 175-185; 25 ref.

Pamietnik-Pulawski. 1986, No. 88, 191-204; 21 ref.

Paola-ML-di; Benvenuti-S; Di-Paola-ML. 1993. Chlorophyll fluorescence as indicator of chilling tolerance in weeds. La fluorescenze della clorofilla come indicatore di stress da freddo in alcune specie infestanti. Rivista-di-Agronomia. 1993, 27: 3, 198-203; 24 ref.

Pardo-A; Suso-ML; Echavarri-F; Lomas-A. 1993. Discrimination between sweet peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) and weeds by means of reflectance techniques. Discriminacion entre pimiento (Capsicum annuum L.) y mals hierbas por medio de Tecnicas de reflectancia. Proceedings of the 1993 Congress of the Spanish Weed Science Society, Lugo, Spain, 1-3 December 1993. 1993, 268-271; 6 ref. Sociedad Espanola de Malherbologia (Spanish Weed Science Society); Madrid; Spain

Petrie-MJ; Drobney-RD; Graber-DA. 1997. Evaluation of true metabolizable energy for waterfowl. Journal-of-Wildlife-Management. 1997, 61: 2, 420-425.

Plavsic-Gojkovic-N; Dubravec-K; Britvec-M; Palcic-B. 1988. Transpiration of leaves of maize BC 4821 and some weed species. 0 transpiraciji listova kukuruza BC 4821 i nekih korovnih vrsta. Fragmenta-Herbologica-Jugoslavica. 1988, 17: 1-2, 25-35; 7 ref.

Primack-RB; Levy-CK. 1988. A method to label seeds and seedlings using gamma-emitting radionuclides. Ecology,-USA. 1988, 69: 3, 796-800; 13 ref.

Raynal,-D-J; Bazzaz,-F-A. 1975. The contrasting life-cycle strategies of three summer annuals [Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Polygonum pensylvanicum, Setaria faberii] found in abandoned fields in Illinois J-Ecol, July 1975, 63 (2): 587-596.

Roberts,-R-H. 1977. Polygonum minus Huds. X Polygonum persicaria L. in Anglesey Watsonia-J-Proc-Bot-Soc-Br-Isles, Jan 1977, 11 (3): 255-256.

Shalamova-GG; Yakovlev-AI; Churilov-GI. 1983. Chemical composition of the aerial parts of three Polygonum L. species. Rastitel'nye-Resursy. 1983, 19: 4, 526-529; 13 ref.

Vysochina-GI; Kul'-pina-TG; Berezovskaya-TP. 1987. Flavonoid content in some species of Polygonum L. section Persicaria (Mill.) D.C. of the Siberian flora. Rastitel'nye-Resursy. 1987, 23: 2, 229-234; 14 ref. 1987

Watson-PJ; Harris-DR; Hillman-GC. 1989. Early plant cultivation in the Eastern Woodlands of North America. Foraging-and-farming:-the-evolution-of-plant-exploitation. 1989, 555-571; One World Archaeology No. 13 ; 113 ref.

Wieland,-N-K; Bazzaz,-F-A. 1975. Physiological ecology of three codominant successional annuals [Setaria faberii, Abutilon theophrasti, Polygonum pensylvanicum] Ecology-Durham, Spring 1975, 56 (3): 681-688.

Zimmermann-ML; Sneden-AT. 1994. Vanicosides A and B, protein kinase C inhibitors from Polygonum pensylvanicum. Journal-of-Natural-Products. 1994, 57: 2, 236-242; 28 ref.

Zwerger,-P. 1990. Studies on the effect of nitrogen fertilization on seed production and competitiveness of Fallopia convolvulus (L.) A. Loeve and three Polygonum species. Modelluntersuchungen zum Einfluss der Stickstoffduengung auf die Samenproduktion und die Schadwirkung von Fallopia convolvulus (L.) A. Loeve und drei Polygonum-Arten. 15. Deutsche Arbeitsbesprechung ueber Fragen der Unkrautbiologie und -bekaempfung. Stuttgart-Hohenheim (Germany). 20-21 Feb 1990. Zeitschrift-fuer-Pflanzenkrankheiten-und-Pflanzenschutz (Germany, F.R.). (1990). (Spec.no.12) p. 107-113.

 


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